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The Migratory Behaviour and Fallback Rate of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: does Timing Matter?
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8738-8815
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3191-7140
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3098-0594
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2016 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1402-1409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

The behavior of early (June-July) and late (August-September) migrating, adult Atlantic salmon, in The River Klaralven, Sweden, was analyzed using radio telemetry. River Klaralven is a regulated river without functioning fishways, instead upstream migrating salmon are trapped and trucked past eight hydropower plants before released back to the river. We distinguished two parts of the spawning migration, that is, one part being the migration from the place where the fish was released to the spawning grounds. The other part was a holding phase on the spawning grounds with little or no movements before spawning. The late salmon spent less of their total time on holding, 36.2%, and more on migration, 63.8%, compared with early migrating salmon, which distributed their time rather evenly between migration, 47.5%, and holding, 52.5%. In total, early salmon used 30% more time migrating and 156% more time holding than late salmon. Some Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fell back over the hydropower plant after release and got excluded from spawning. The fallback rates of transported, tagged spawners were higher in the early than in the late group in both years. The fallback rate in 2012 was 42.8% of the early group and 15.1% in the late. In 2013, there were 51.7 % fallbacks in the early group and 3.4% in the late. The salmon fell back on average 9days after being released in 2012 and 16days in 2013. A high mean daily discharge on the day of release increased the probability of becoming a fallback. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016. Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1402-1409
Keywords [en]
Atlantic Salmon, upstream migration, fallback, spawning, behaviour, timing
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44678DOI: 10.1002/rra.3007ISI: 000379952900023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-44678DiVA, id: diva2:952229
Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Conservation of landlocked Atlantic salmon in a regulated river: Behaviour of migratory spawners and juveniles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conservation of landlocked Atlantic salmon in a regulated river: Behaviour of migratory spawners and juveniles
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams represent one of the major threats to river ecosystems today. The dams block migratory routes in many rivers, which is problematic for migratory fish species. Trap-and-transport may be an alternative to fish passage solutions, as a strategy to compensate for lost river connectivity. Stocking of hatchery fish is another mitigating measure often used to compensate for reduced yields in fisheries, but also as supportive breeders in declining populations.

 

In this thesis, I report the results from radio-telemetry studies where the behavior of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners has been investigated in a regulated river. I also studied the function and success of using hatchery fish as supportive breeders and if there are any effects of migratory timing on migratory success. Further, I evaluated upstream passage performance by Atlantic salmon and brown trout at fishways in rivers Klarälven, Sweden and Gudbrandslågen, Norway. The goal was to determine if prior fishway experience had an effect on passage success. I identified three problems associated with the current river management, namely the high incidence of fallbacks among the early migrating salmon, the negative effects of high river flow and prior experience on fishway efficacy and that the use of hatchery-reared fish as supportive breeders have little, if any, positive effect on reproduction. Finally, I examined the competitive interactions that may occur when reintroducing Atlantic salmon to areas with native grayling and brown trout. I found no evidence of Atlantic salmon affecting grayling or brown trout. Instead, Atlantic salmon were dominated by the other two species, which indicates that reintroduction of salmon may not be successful, especially if habitat diversity is constrained.

 

Conservation and management of migratory salmonids requires an understanding of their ecology and life-histories. In the regulated river Klarälven, populations of landlocked Atlantic salmon and migratory brown trout have declined due to river exploitation. The results presented in this thesis originate from concerns regarding salmonid conservation in regulated rivers, with a focus on the difficulties migratory spawners may face in these altered environments.

Abstract [en]

In this thesis, I report the results from radio-telemetry studies where the behavior and success of migrating Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spawners has been investigated in a regulated river. I have also studied the function of using hatchery fish as supportive breeders and evaluated the upstream passage performance by Atlantic salmon and brown trout (Salmo trutta) at fishways in the River Klarälven, Sweden and Gudbrandslågen, Norway.

I identified three problems associated with management in a regulated river, namely the high incidence of fallbacks among the early migrating salmon, the negative effects of high river flow and prior experience on fishway efficacy and that the use of hatchery-reared fish as supportive breeders have little, if any, positive effect on reproduction.

Finally, I examined the competitive interactions that may occur when reintroducing Atlantic salmon to areas with native grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and brown trout.

Conservation and management of migratory salmonids requires an understanding of ecology and life-histories. The results presented in this thesis originate from concerns regarding salmonid conservation in regulated rivers, with a focus on the difficulties migratory spawners may face in these altered environments. The results of my research can be applied to other regulated systems, particularly those with trap and transport solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019. p. 51
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2019:7
Keywords
Atlantic salmon, conservation, migration, spawning, hydropower, competition, juveniles, brown trout, hatchery reared, fallback, delay
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71333 (URN)978-91-7867-002-4 (ISBN)978-91-7867-007-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-04-12, Sjöströmssalen 1B309, Karlstad Universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-03-22Bibliographically approved

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Hagelin, AnnaCalles, OlleGreenberg, LarryNyqvist, DanielBergman, Eva

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