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Post-Spawning Survival and Downstream Passage of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: Is There Potential for Repeat Spawning?
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3098-0594
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8738-8815
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2220-1615
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
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2015 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 5, 1008-1017 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Repeat salmonid spawners may make large contributions to total recruitment and long term population stability. Despite their potential importance, relatively little is known about this phase of the life history for anadromous populations, and nothing has been reported for landlocked populations. Here, we studied post-spawning behaviour and survival of landlocked Atlantic salmon in relation to downstream dam passage in the River KlarÀlven, Sweden. Eight hydropower stations separate the feeding grounds in Lake VÀnern from the spawning grounds in the River KlarÀlven, and no measures to facilitate downstream migration are present in the river. Forty-nine percent of the salmon survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Females and small fish had higher post-spawning survival than males and large fish. The post-spawners migrated downstream in autumn and spring and remained relatively inactive in the river during winter. Downstream migration speed in the free flowing part of the river was highly variable with a median of 9.30km/day. Most fish passed the first hydropower station via upward-opening spill gates after a median residence time in the forebay of 25min. However, no tagged fish survived passage of all eight hydropower stations to reach Lake VÀnern. This result underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of downstream migrating kelts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015. Vol. 32, no 5, 1008-1017 p.
Keyword [en]
migration; kelt; multiple dam passage; telemetry; hydropower; gender difference
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42458DOI: 10.1002/rra.2926ISI: 000378715500018ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84931843504OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-42458DiVA: diva2:930335
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2016-10-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams block migration routes and disrupt longitudinal connectivity in rivers, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Various fish passage solutions have been implemented to improve connectivity with varying success. A well-functioning passage solution must ensure safe and timely passage routes that are used by a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I report the results from telemetry studies where the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners, post-spawners and smolts have been evaluated in relation to hydropower dam passage. I evaluate downstream passage performance at dams with no passage solutions in the River Klarälven, and with simple passage solutions in in the Winooski River. In the River Ätran, I study both upstream- and downstream passage performance at a dam with sophisticated passage solutions based on the best available technology. In addition, I have studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

A substantial portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Most males migrated downstream in autumn following spawning, whereas females tended to stay in the river until spring. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality for both smolts and kelts. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. High spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. The best available passage solution, which consisted of a nature-like fishway and a low sloping intake rack to guide fish to a bypass, resulted in rapid passage of a large portion of the adult migrants.

Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams block migration routes, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Fishways and other fish passage solutions may aid fish to pass hydropower dams. A functional fish passage solution, however, must ensure safe and timely passage for a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I focus on downstream passage and evaluate the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon in relation to dams in systems with (1) no fish passage solutions (2) simple passage solutions (3) best available passage solutions. In addition, I studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

 

A large portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality, and high spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. Rapid passage of a large portion of the migrating adult salmon was achieved using best available passage solutions.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016. 41 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 42
Keyword
fish migration; fish passage; downstream migration; kelt; smolt
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46903 (URN)978-91-7063-725-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, Nyquistsalen 9C 203, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2016-11-15Bibliographically approved

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Nyqvist, DanielCalles, OlleBergman, EvaHagelin, AnnaGreenberg, Larry
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