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Evaluation and analysis of environmentally sustainable methodologies for extraction of betulin from birch bark with a focus on industrial feasibility
Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem BMC, Analyt Chem, POB 599, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden..
Lund Univ, Ctr Anal & Synth, Dept Chem, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9919-1040
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8943-6286
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2016 (English)In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 516-523Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Betulin from birch bark was extracted using two principally different extraction methodologies - classical Reflux Boiling (RB) and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The extraction methods were analyzed based on both recovery and purity as well as for RB industrial feasibility. The purity and recovery for the different extraction methods were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with three different detection principles: Diode Array Detection (DAD), Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Charged Aerosol Detection (CAD). The chromatographic purity was determined by all detections whereas the DAD was used also for complementary gravimetric calculations of the purity of the extracts. The MS detection (in MS and MS/MS modes) was mainly used to characterize the impurities. Two steps to increase the purity of RB extracts were evaluated - pre-boiling the bark in water and precipitation by adding water to the extract. Finally, the methods were compared in terms of amounts of betulin produced and solvent consumed. The RB method including a precipitation step produced the highest purity of betulin. However, results indicate that PLE using three cycles with the precipitation step gives similar purities as for RB. The PLE method produced up to 1.6 times higher amount of extract compared to the RB method. However, the solvent consumption (liter solvent per gram product) for PLE was around 4.5 times higher as compared to the classical RB. PLE performed with only one extraction cycle gave results more similar to RB with 1.2 times higher yield and 1.4 times higher solvent consumption. The RB process was investigated on an industrial scale using a model approach and several important key-factors could be identified. The most energy demanding step was the recycling of extraction solvent which motivates that solvent consumption should be kept low and calculations show a great putative energy reduction by decreasing the ethanol concentration used in the RB process to lower than 90%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 18, no 2, p. 516-523
Keyword [en]
OUTER BARK; ACID; SOLVENT; CELLS
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41179DOI: 10.1039/c5gc00519aISI: 000369534500024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-41179DiVA, id: diva2:915672
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-10-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Added value from biomass by broader utilization of fuels and CHP plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Added value from biomass by broader utilization of fuels and CHP plants
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present work, where additional value-creating processes in existing combined heat and power (CHP) structures have been examined, is motivated by a political- and consumer-driven strive towards a bioeconomy and a stagnation for the existing business models in large parts of the CHP sector.

The research is based on cases where the integration of flash pyrolysis for co-production of bio-oil, co-gasification for production of fuel gas and synthetic biofuels as well as leaching of extractable fuel components in existing CHP plants have been simulated. In particular, this work has focused on the CHP plants that utilize boilers of fluidized bed (FB) type, where the concept of coupling a separate FB reactor to the FB of the boiler forms an important basis for the analyses. In such dual fluidized bed (DFB) technology, heat is transferred from the boiler to the new rector that is operating with other fluidization media than air, thereby enabling other thermochemical processes than combustion to take place. The result of this work shows that broader operations at existing CHP plants have the potential to enable production of significant volumes of chemicals and/or fuels with high efficiency, while maintaining heat supply to external customers.

Based on the insight that the technical preconditions for a broader operation are favourable, the motivation and ability among the incumbents in the Swedish CHP sector to participate in a transition of their operation towards a biorefinery was examined. The result of this assessment showed that the incumbents believe that a broader operation can create significant values for their own operations, the society and the environment, but that they lack both a strong motivation as well as important abilities to move into the new technological fields.

If the concepts of broader production are widely implemented in the Swedish FB based CHP sector, this can substantially contribute in the transition towards a bioeconomy.

Abstract [en]

Bioeconomy has been identified to hold a great potential for reducing fossil fuel dependence and for maintaining and creating economic growth. Large parts of the combined heat and power (CHP) sector, which successfully have contributed in the transition towards a fossil free society, are at present facing stagnation. District heating actors are facing challenges due to warmer climate, better insulated buildings and competition from heat pumps. The forest industry where CHP plants supplies processes with heat is facing structural changes foremost in the graphic segments.

The emerging bioeconomy and the stagnation for the existing business models in large parts of the CHP sector form the background for the examination of additional value-creating processes in the existing CHP structure presented in this thesis. The technical viability for integration of fast pyrolysis, gasification and leaching with existing CHP plants has been analysed as well as the motivation and ability of the CHP incumbents to participate in a transition towards the bioeconomy by developing their plants to biorefineries. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2016:44
Keyword
biofuels, bioeconomy, pyrolysis, gasification, leaching
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46906 (URN)978-91-7063-727-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-08, 9C203 Nyquistsalen, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-10-20 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved

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Gustavsson, ChristerFornstedt, TorgnySamuelsson, Jorgen

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