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The influence of clay orientation and crystallinity on oxygen permeation in dispersion barrier coatings
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. (Materialvetenskap)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1609-8909
Stora Enso.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
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2016 (English)In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 126, 17-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study oxygen permeability in dispersion barriers produced from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and kaolin clay blends coated onto polymeric supports was investigated. To determine the oxygen permeability, two measurement methods were used: the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the ambient oxygen ingress rate (AOIR). It was found that with increasing kaolin content the oxygen permeability increased, up to about 5 wt% kaolin, whereafter the oxygen permeability decreased, as was expected. The increased (> 5%) kaolin loading lowered the diffusion because of an increased tortuosity. Structural information about the dispersion-barrier coatings, such as kaolin orientation and polymer crystallinity, was obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Kaolin orientation was influenced by the drying temperature, the thickness of the samples, and the kaolin concentration. The polymer crystallinity increased in thicker samples. The drying temperature did not show any clear effect on the crystallinity of thin samples, while for the thicker barriers, combined with a kaolin concentration lower than 20 wt%, a higher crystallinity was achieved at lower drying temperatures. This study demonstrates the strong influence of chemical and physical structures on the permeability of the investigated coatings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 126, 17-24 p.
Keyword [en]
Barrier coating; Kaolin; Polyvinyl alcohol; Permeability; Dynamic mass transport; Crystallinity; Kaolin orientation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41069DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2016.02.029ISI: 000376213900003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-41069DiVA: diva2:912331
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20100268
Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2016-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Structural Studies and Modelling of Oxygen Transport in Barrier Materials for Food Packaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural Studies and Modelling of Oxygen Transport in Barrier Materials for Food Packaging
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The requirements of food packages are to ensure food safety and quality, to minimize spoilage, and to provide an easy way to store and handle food. To meet these demands for fibre-based food packages, barrier coatings are generally used to regulate the amount of gases entering a package, as some gases are detrimental to food quality. Oxygen, for example, initiates lipid oxidation in fatty foods. Bakery products may also be sensitive to oxygen.

This thesis focused on mass transport of oxygen in order to gain deeper knowledge in the performance of barrier coatings and to develop means to optimize the performance of barrier coatings. This experimental study along with computer modelling characterized the structure of barrier materials with respect to the mass transport process.This project was performed as part of the multidisciplinary industrial graduate school VIPP (www.kau.se/en/vipp) - Values Created in Fibre Based Processes and Products – at Karlstad University, with the financial support from the Knowledge Foundation, Sweden, and Stora Enso.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014. 45 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2014:64
Keyword
Barrier coating; Permeability; Dynamic Mass Transport; Modeling; Diffusion; Polymer; Dispersion; Kaolin
National Category
Polymer Technologies Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34468 (URN)978-91-7063-604-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-12-11, Eva Eriksson, 21A 342, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Artikel 2 "The influence of clay orientation..." ingick som manuskript i avhandlingen, då med titeln: "Influence of clay orientation in dispersion barrier coatings on oxygen permeation". Nu publicerad.

Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2016-08-16Bibliographically approved
2. Structure-Performance Relations of Oxygen Barriers for Food Packaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure-Performance Relations of Oxygen Barriers for Food Packaging
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Food packaging should ensure the safety and quality of food, minimize spoilage and provide an easy way of storing and handling it. Barrier coatings are generally used to meet the demands placed on fibre-based food packages, as these have the ability to regulate the amount of gases that can enter them. Some gases are detrimental to food quality: oxygen, for example, initiates lipid oxidation in fatty foods. Using both experimental data and computer modelling, this thesis explains some aspects of how the structure of barrier coatings influences the mass transport of oxygen with the aim of obtaining essential knowledge that can be used to optimize the performance of barriers.

Barrier coatings are produced from polyvinyl alcohol and kaolin blends that are coated onto a polymeric support. The chemical and physical structures of these barriers were characterized according to their influence on permeability in various climates. At a low concentration of kaolin, the crystallinity of polyvinyl alcohol decreased; in the thinner films, the kaolin particles were orientated in the basal plane of the barrier coating. The experimental results indicated a complex interplay between the polymer and the filler with respect to permeability.

A computer model for permeability incorporating theories for the filled polymeric layer to include the polymer crystallinity, addition of filler, filler aspect ratio and surrounding moisture was developed. The model shows that mass transport was affected by the aspect ratio of the clay in combination with the clay concentration, as well as the polymer crystallinity. The combined model agreed with the experiments, showing that it is possible to combine different theories into one model that can be used to predict the mass transport.

Four barrier coatings: polyethylene, ethylene vinyl alcohol + kaolin, latex + kaolin and starch were evaluated using the parameters of greenhouse gas emissions and product costs. After the production of the barrier material, the coating process and the end-of-life handling scenarios were analysed, it emerged that starch had the lowest environmental impact and latex + kaolin had the highest.

Abstract [en]

Food packaging is required to secure the safety and quality of food, as well as minimize spoilage and simplify handling. Barrier coatings are generally used to meet the demands placed on fibre-based food packages, as these have the ability to regulate the amount of gases that can enter them. Some gases are detrimental to food quality: oxygen, for example, initiates lipid oxidation in fatty foods.

This thesis focuses on the mass transport of oxygen in order to gain deeper knowledge of, and thereby optimise, the performance of barrier coatings. This experimental study, together with computer modelling, characterized the structure of barrier materials with respect to the mass transport process. The performance of the barriers was evaluated based on the parameters of environmental impact and product costs. As the long-term aim is to use non-petroleum-based barrier coatings for packaging, these should be evaluated by assessing the properties of the material in question, its functionality and its environmental impact to provide more insight into which materials are desirable as well as to develop technology.

The results from this study indicate that several parameters (the orientation, concentration and aspect ratio of the clay and the polymer crystallinity) influence the properties of a barrier. Using this knowledge, researchers and food packaging engineers can work toward improving and customising renewable barriers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. 100 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:3
Keyword
Barrier coating, Permeability, Dynamic Mass Transport, Modelling, Diffusion, Polymer, Dispersion, Kaolin, LCA, Starch, Hemicellulose
National Category
Polymer Technologies Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Computational Mathematics Food Engineering Composite Science and Engineering Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47496 (URN)978-91-7063-738-4 (ISBN)978-91-7063-739-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-02-10, Eva Eriksson, 21A342, Karlstad, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
VIPP
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20100268Stora Enso
Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-01-24Bibliographically approved

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Nyflött, ÅsaMoons, EllenGunilla, CarlssonJärnström, LarsLestelius, Magnus

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