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Ice cover affects the growth of a stream-dwelling fish
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4417-6636
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2220-1615
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2633-4178
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3191-71
2016 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 181, no 1, 299-311 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Protection provided by shelter is important for survival and affects the time and energy budgets of animals. It has been suggested that in fresh waters at high latitudes and altitudes, surface ice during winter functions as overhead cover for fish, reducing the predation risk from terrestrial piscivores. We simulated ice cover by suspending plastic sheeting over five 30-m-long stream sections in a boreal forest stream and examined its effects on the growth and habitat use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) during winter. Trout that spent the winter under the artificial ice cover grew more than those in the control (uncovered) sections. Moreover, tracking of trout tagged with passive integrated transponders showed that in the absence of the artificial ice cover, habitat use during the day was restricted to the stream edges, often under undercut banks, whereas under the simulated ice cover condition, trout used the entire width of the stream. These results indicate that the presence of surface ice cover may improve the energetic status and broaden habitat use of stream fish during winter. It is therefore likely that reductions in the duration and extent of ice cover due to climate change will alter time and energy budgets, with potentially negative effects on fish production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016. Vol. 181, no 1, 299-311 p.
Keyword [en]
Climate change, Energy budget, Global warming, Salmonid, Winter
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39125DOI: 10.1007/s00442-016-3555-zISI: 000374564000026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-39125DiVA: diva2:897207
Available from: 2016-01-25 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2016-06-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and mitigating anthropogenic impacts on fish production in boreal streams. Stream salmonids are relatively active throughout winter, and behavioural responses to different winter conditions may be critical for survival. Yet, relatively little is known about overwintering behaviour of salmonids, particularly in streams with ice. In this doctoral thesis, I report the results from experimental field and laboratory studies on the behavioural ecology of juvenile salmonids under winter conditions. My results from the field show that salmonids grow more and use a broader range of habitats in the presence of surface ice than in its absence. Results from the laboratory experiments show that the presence of surface ice increases food intake rates, reduces stress and affects social interactions. These laboratory results may explain the positive effects of ice cover on growth that was found in the field experiment. Moreover, I show that drift-feeding ability is reduced at low temperatures, and that nocturnal drift foraging under winter conditions has a low efficiency.

Abstract [sv]

Vinterförhållanden kan spela en avgörande roll för förekomsten av fisk i våra vattendrag. Laxfiskar, som till exempel lax, öring och harr, är vinteraktiva och måste därför anpassa sin fysiologi och sitt beteende till en miljö som karakteriseras av låga och föränderliga vattenflöden, liten tillgång på föda, kallt vatten, is och mörker. Trots att dessa anpassningar är avgörande för chansen att överleva vintern, vet man relativt lite om laxfiskars vinterbeteende, speciellt i vattendrag som täcks av is. I denna avhandling presenterar jag resultat från fält- och laboratoriestudier av laxfiskars beteende under vinterförhållanden och resultaten visar att närvaron av yttäckande is ökar tillväxt och födointag, minskar stress samt påverkar var fiskar uppehåller sig och hur fiskarna interagerar med varandra. Jag har också undersökt hur laxfiskars beteende i rinnande vatten påverkas av ljusintensitet och vattentemperatur i samband med födointag. Resultaten visar att den minskade dagaktiviteten som laxfiskar uppvisar på vintern medför en kostnad i form av försämrad förmåga att fånga byten.

Abstract [en]

Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and mitigating anthropogenic impacts on fish production in boreal streams.

Stream salmonids are active throughout winter, and behavioural responses to different winter conditions may be critical for survival. Yet, relatively little is known about overwintering behaviour of salmonids, particularly in streams with ice. This doctoral thesis focuses on the behavioural ecology of salmonids under winter conditions, and results from field and laboratory experiments show that the presence of surface ice increases food intake rates, reduces stress and affects social interactions, with effects on growth and habitat use. Moreover, drift-feeding ability is reduced at low temperatures, and nocturnal drift foraging under winter conditions has a low efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015. 40 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2015:55
Keyword
climate change, drift, energy budget, foraging, grayling, ice cover, lotic, metabolic rate, predation, salmon, stream, stress, temperature, trout
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38354 (URN)978-91-7063-674-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-22, 9C203, Nyquistsalen, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Artikel 1 i avhandlingen som manuskript. Nu publicerad.

Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2016-06-07Bibliographically approved

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