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Biological flora of central Europe: Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina
Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
Czech Republic.
2006 (English)In: Perspectives in plant ecology, evolution and systematics, ISSN 1433-8319, E-ISSN 1618-0437, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 45-66Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Viola elatior, V pumila and V stagnina (syn. V persicifolia) are very rare in central and western Europe and red-listed in many central European countries. To improve their conservation and to base management efforts on sound scientific knowledge, we here review the available information on their biology. A comparative approach is adopted to identify similarities and differences between the species. Special emphasis will be on taxonomy, community ecology and population biology. All three species belong to the section Viola, subsection Rostratae. Since they are morphologically rather similar and have often been misidentified, we supply the most important characters for separating the three taxa. The species share a continental distribution with a centre of occurrence in the temperate zone of eastern Europe and western Siberia, and reach their western range margin in central and western Europe. They have become rare and endangered through melioration and fragmentation of their habitats. All three species are iteroparous hemicryptophytes with a complex life cycle, a mixed mating system with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers, and a persistent seed bank. Viola pumila and V. stagnina occur in floodplain meadows and wet grasslands, whereas V. elatior is a typical species of alluvial woodland fringes and other ecotonal habitats bordering floodplain meadows. Viola elatior and V pumila are confined to calcareous or at least base-rich substrates, whereas V stagnina may also occur on strongly acidic soils. The violets are able to occupy a broad range of site conditions in terms of soil nutrient status and productivity. However, on fertile sites the species depend on regular disturbances that weaken competitors and enhance the germination of dormant seeds. Current information about mycorrhizal colonisation, biochemical and physiological data, and herbivores and pathogens is scarce or lacking, probably due to the rarity of the three species in central Europe. (c) 2006 Rubel Foundation, ETH Zurich. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 8, no 1, p. 45-66
Keywords [en]
ecology, Morava-Dyje floodplain, plant traits, species biology, upper Rhine, Viola persicifolia
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37739DOI: 10.1016/j.ppees.2006.01.001ISI: 000241499200004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-37739DiVA, id: diva2:857168
Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

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Eckstein, Rolf Lutz

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