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Ice cover alters the behavior and stress level of brown trout Salmo trutta
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4417-6636
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (NRRV - Naturresurs Rinnande Vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2220-1615
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8738-8815
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7160-1290
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2015 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 820-827Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface ice in rivers and lakes buffers the thermal environment and provides overhead cover, protecting aquatic animals from terrestrial predators. We tested if surface ice influenced the behavior (swimming activity, aggressive encounters, and number of food items eaten) and stress level (coloration of eyes and body) of stream-living brown trout Salmo trutta at temperatures of 3–4 °C in indoor experimental flumes. We hypothesized that an individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR, as measured by resting ventilation rate) would affect winter behavior. Therefore, groups of 4 trout, consisting of individuals with high, low, or mixed (2 individuals each) RMR, were exposed to experimental conditions with or without ice cover. Ice cover reduced stress responses, as evaluated by body coloration. Also, trout in low RMR groups had a paler body color than those in both mixed and high RMR groups. Trout increased their swimming activity under ice cover, with the highest activity found in high RMR groups. Ice cover increased the number of aggressive encounters but did not influence the number of drifting food items taken by each group. In mixed RMR groups, however, single individuals were better able to monopolize food than in the other groups. As the presence of surface ice increases the activity level and reduces stress in stream-living trout, ice cover should influence their energy budgets and production. The results should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming that reduces the duration of ice cover, especially at high latitudes and altitudes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. Vol. 26, no 3, p. 820-827
Keyword [en]
aggression, climate change, energy budget, metabolic rate, winter
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35931DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arv019ISI: 000356585100024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-35931DiVA, id: diva2:808653
Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and mitigating anthropogenic impacts on fish production in boreal streams. Stream salmonids are relatively active throughout winter, and behavioural responses to different winter conditions may be critical for survival. Yet, relatively little is known about overwintering behaviour of salmonids, particularly in streams with ice. In this doctoral thesis, I report the results from experimental field and laboratory studies on the behavioural ecology of juvenile salmonids under winter conditions. My results from the field show that salmonids grow more and use a broader range of habitats in the presence of surface ice than in its absence. Results from the laboratory experiments show that the presence of surface ice increases food intake rates, reduces stress and affects social interactions. These laboratory results may explain the positive effects of ice cover on growth that was found in the field experiment. Moreover, I show that drift-feeding ability is reduced at low temperatures, and that nocturnal drift foraging under winter conditions has a low efficiency.

Abstract [sv]

Vinterförhållanden kan spela en avgörande roll för förekomsten av fisk i våra vattendrag. Laxfiskar, som till exempel lax, öring och harr, är vinteraktiva och måste därför anpassa sin fysiologi och sitt beteende till en miljö som karakteriseras av låga och föränderliga vattenflöden, liten tillgång på föda, kallt vatten, is och mörker. Trots att dessa anpassningar är avgörande för chansen att överleva vintern, vet man relativt lite om laxfiskars vinterbeteende, speciellt i vattendrag som täcks av is. I denna avhandling presenterar jag resultat från fält- och laboratoriestudier av laxfiskars beteende under vinterförhållanden och resultaten visar att närvaron av yttäckande is ökar tillväxt och födointag, minskar stress samt påverkar var fiskar uppehåller sig och hur fiskarna interagerar med varandra. Jag har också undersökt hur laxfiskars beteende i rinnande vatten påverkas av ljusintensitet och vattentemperatur i samband med födointag. Resultaten visar att den minskade dagaktiviteten som laxfiskar uppvisar på vintern medför en kostnad i form av försämrad förmåga att fånga byten.

Abstract [en]

Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and mitigating anthropogenic impacts on fish production in boreal streams.

Stream salmonids are active throughout winter, and behavioural responses to different winter conditions may be critical for survival. Yet, relatively little is known about overwintering behaviour of salmonids, particularly in streams with ice. This doctoral thesis focuses on the behavioural ecology of salmonids under winter conditions, and results from field and laboratory experiments show that the presence of surface ice increases food intake rates, reduces stress and affects social interactions, with effects on growth and habitat use. Moreover, drift-feeding ability is reduced at low temperatures, and nocturnal drift foraging under winter conditions has a low efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015. p. 40
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2015:55
Keyword
climate change, drift, energy budget, foraging, grayling, ice cover, lotic, metabolic rate, predation, salmon, stream, stress, temperature, trout
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38354 (URN)978-91-7063-674-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-22, 9C203, Nyquistsalen, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Artikel 1 i avhandlingen som manuskript. Nu publicerad.

Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2016-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/820

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Watz, JohanBergman, EvaCalles, OlleEnefalk, ÅsaGustafsson, StinaHagelin, AnnaNilsson, P. AndersNorrgård, JohnnyNyqvist, DanielÖsterling, MartinPiccolo, John J.Schneider, Lea DominiqueGreenberg, LarryBror, Jonsson

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Watz, JohanBergman, EvaCalles, OlleEnefalk, ÅsaGustafsson, StinaHagelin, AnnaNilsson, P. AndersNorrgård, JohnnyNyqvist, DanielÖsterling, MartinPiccolo, John J.Schneider, Lea DominiqueGreenberg, LarryBror, Jonsson
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