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Macroinvertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway: The effects of adding habitat heterogeneity
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6758-5857
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
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2013 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecosystem Restoration, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 61, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nature-like fishways are designed to imitate the characteristics of natural streams, thereby providing both fish passage and habitat for a variety of aquatic organisms. To date, however, the potential for habitat rehabilitation of nature-like fishways has not been fully realized. To develop the concept of how to design a nature-like fishway, a 500-m long nature-like fishway, termed the biocanal, was constructed at the Eldforsen hydroelectric facility, Sweden. It included four habitat types: riffle, pool, floodplain and braided (i.e. with islands), each replicated three times. The riffle sections were considered controls for typical Swedish nature-like fishways. Thus the biocanal had a more varied in-stream environment than those of conventional fishways. To test the prediction that the biocanal had a positive effect on biodiversity, we compared the physical habitat and benthic fauna composition of the more diverse habitat types in the biocanal to the riffle habitats. We also made comparisons between the biocanal and six natural reference streams in the area. After two years, 63% of the benthic fauna families found in the reference streams had colonized the biocanal. Families present in the reference streams, but not in the biocanal, were predominantly slow colonizers or taxa linked to riparian vegetation, which was scarce and in an early successional stage along the biocanal. In the biocanal, pool and floodplain habitats contained the highest number of families, the highest family diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and the highest densities of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Since these habitats contained more families and had higher diversities than the riffle habitats which are typical of conventional nature-like fishways, we suggest that the construction of biocanals indeed possesses the potential for high biodiversity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 61, p. 345-353
Keyword [en]
Nature-like fishway, Habitat compensation, Macroinvertebrate, Diversity, aquatic insects, invertebrate colonization, benthic invertebrate, bypass, channel, stream, river, communities, diversity, recovery, disturbance
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33968DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.09.023ISI: 000328487200041OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-33968DiVA, id: diva2:752274
Note

The study presented in this paper was funded by Fortum Environmental Fund. Projects that receive funding are approved by the NGO Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC). 

Available from: 2014-10-03 Created: 2014-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Habitat compensation in nature-like fishways: Effects on benthos and fish
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habitat compensation in nature-like fishways: Effects on benthos and fish
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The construction of nature-like fishways has become an increasingly common measure to restore longitudinal connectivity in streams and rivers affected by hydroelectric development. These fishways also have the potential to function as habitat compensation measures when running waters have been degraded or lost. The habitat potential has however often been overlooked, and therefore the aim of this thesis was to examine the potential of nature-like fishways for habitat compensation, with special focus on the effect of added habitat heterogeneity.

This thesis examines the effects of habitat diversity on the macroinvertebrate family composition and functional organization in a nature-like, biocanal-type fishway. The biocanal contained four habitat types; riffle, pool, braided channel and floodplain. The effects of habitat diversity and large woody debris on brown trout habitat choice was also investigated in the biocanal. In addition, and prior to introduction of the threatened freshwater pearl mussel into the biocanal, the suitability of different brown trout strains as hosts for the mussel was examined.

The results show that the habitat heterogeneity in the biocanal contributed to an increased macroinvertebrate family diversity. The functional organization of the macroinvertebrate community suggests that it was a heterotrophic system and more functionally similar to the main river than to the small streams that it was created to resemble. Brown trout habitat choice studies showed that high densities of large woody debris increase the probability of fish remaining at the site of release. Testing of different brown trout strains as host for the freshwater pearl mussel revealed that both wild and hatchery-reared brown trout strains were suitable hosts. In summary, the results indicate that it is possible to create a fish passage with added value through its high habitat function and that nature-like fishways can be designed to reach multiple species restoration goals.

Abstract [en]

The construction of nature-like fishways has become an increasingly common measure to restore longitudinal connectivity in streams, but these fishways also have the potential to compensate for habitat degradation and loss associated with hydropower. The habitat potential of fishways has largely been overlooked, and therefore the aim of this dissertation was to examine the potential of nature-like fishways for habitat compensation, with special focus on the effect of added habitat heterogeneity.

I examined the effects of added habitat heterogeneity in a nature-like fishway on macroinvertebrate family composition and functional organization as well as on brown trout habitat choice. In addition, I studied the suitability of different strains of brown trout as hosts for the freshwater pearl mussel, one of the target species for this study.

I found that by relatively simple modifications to increase habitat diversity, including the addition of large woody debris, that one could not only accommodate specific target species, but also increase biodiversity in general. These results show that it is possible to build nature-like fishways with high habitat functionality that also include multiple species restoration goals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. p. 33
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:46
Keyword
Biocanal, biodiversity, brown trout, freshwater pearl mussel, functional feeding groups, habitat heterogeneity, large woody debris, macroinvertebrates, PIT-tag, salmonids
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65018 (URN)978-91-7063-823-7 (ISBN)978-91-7063-918-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-15, 1B 306 Fryxellsalen, Karlstad, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved

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Gustafsson, StinaÖsterling, MartinSchneider, Lea DominiqueCalles, Olle

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