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Red Bull är ju Red Bull alltså. Det går inte att komma ifrån det. Så är det bara.: En Fallstudie On Konsumentengagemeng.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
2014 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
There is Only Red Bull. : A Case Study About Consumer Involvement. (English)
Abstract [en]


Today’s societal trends, regarding consumption as a primary channel for expressing and creating

self-identity, have molded modern marketing. In response, advertising and marketing has become

more emotionally inclined, focusing on feelings of the consumer and symbolic meanings, instead

of or in addition to displaying the products basic functions. (Bengtsson & Östberg 2006)

There is a tendency within the research fields of marketing and media communications to

categorize products as high-involvement or low-involvement. (Dahlén & Lange 2009, Jobber

2010, Fahy & Jobber 2012, Fill 2006) These terms suggest that customers are either highly or

lowly involved in decision-making when buying a new product. Researchers within the fields

have concluded that high-involvement products fulfill the customers’ emotional, symbolic and

ego-related needs, as well as basic needs. Low-involvement products, with a few product

exceptions that fulfill ego-related rewarding needs, only fulfill basic needs. (Fill 2006) This case

study aims to gain further understanding about Red Bull, which could initially be categorized as a

low-involvement product. Since there is a brand community of “Red Bull-fans” (admirers of the

brand), there are strong indications that Red Bull does fulfill its consumers’ emotional, symbolic

and ego-related needs. (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2001) This study examines if and how the fans

experience the needs, to understand if Red Bull has features that make the product fit into both


Low-involvement products are by definition low-economic risk products, meaning low priced

products. (Dahlén & Lange 2009) Non-alcoholic drinks are used as an example of products that

are low-involvement. (Fill 2006) This indicates that Red Bull should be categorized as a lowinvolvement

product, but the fact that members of the “Red Bull-community” are highly

involved in other ways cannot be ignored. They attend events, follow Red Bull-tv, follow athletes

online etc. Red Bull uses marketing that creates close relationships between themselves and their

publics (Underwood, 2001) via events, sponsorships and contests. It is important to

understand if low-involvement products can use this kind of marketing to increase the brand

value, as earlier research advises us to market low-involvement products with short, repeated

messages, preferably via TV-media. (Dahlén & Lange 2009)

Ultimately, this boils down to one question; Is it possible that Red Bull, even though it is a low-priced

consumer-product, fulfills emotional, symbolic and ego-related needs? The result of this study shows that the

answer is yes. Using focus groups to interview the Red Bull-fans this study finds that Red Bull

does fulfill the mentioned needs. Red Bull should be categorized both as a high- and lowinvolvement

product, which is not accord with earlier research. “At the point of decision-making

involvement is either high or low, not some point on a sliding scale or a point on a continuum

between two extremes”. (Fill 2006:70)

The result of this study is yet another contribution to research describing our world as

consumption-centered. It is also a comment on how powerful brands can become by aiming to

connect with publics using relationship-building marketing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 64 p.
Keyword [en]
Red Bull, emotional needs, symbolic needs, identity, consumer behavior
Keyword [sv]
Red Bull, emotionella behov, symboliska behov, identitet, konsument, konsumentbehov, konsumentengagemang, engagemang, högengagemang, lågengagemang
National Category
Social Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-32012OAI: diva2:715171
Subject / course
Media and Communication Studies
Educational program
Study programme in Public Relations
Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2014-05-05Bibliographically approved

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