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Properties of modified starches and their use in the surface treatment of paper
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The papermaking industry uses a large amount of starch each year, both as a wet-end additive and as a rheological modifier in surface sizing and coating colors. It is important to be able to reduce the amount of chemicals used in the papermaking and surface treatment process, to reduce costs and to make the process even more efficient. Interest in new high-performance starches is great. By using these new types of starches, improved recycling of barrier products may be obtained as well as a reduction in the use of synthetic sizing agents. The objectives of this work were to understand the behavior of temperature-responsive hydrophobically modified starches, where the solubility in water simply can be adjusted by temperature or by polymer charge, to improve the barrier properties, like the water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and water resistance (Cobb and contact angle) of papers surface sized by starch-containing solutions, and to investigate the potential for industrial use of these temperature-responsive starches. It was demonstrated that the temperature-responsive starches phase separate upon cooling and, depending on the charge density of the starch, a particulate precipitation or a gel-like structure was obtained. The starch with zero net charge showed a larger increase in turbidity than the starch with a cationic net charge, indicating that particulate precipitation is favored by a zero net charge and that the formation of a gel network is favored by charged starch molecules. Further, the starches formed inclusion complexes with surfactants, giving stabilization to the starches in the presence of surfactants. The net charge density of the starch and the charge of the surfactant determined whether or not an inclusion complex would form between them. Important mechanisms for the stability of the starch seemed to be formation of mixed micellar-like structures between the hydrophobic chain of the starch and the surfactant along the starch backbone in addition to formation of inclusion complexes between the starch and the surfactant. The hydrophobically modified starches showed higher hydrophobic surface character when applied to the paper surface above the critical phase separation temperature than with application at room temperature. Free films of the temperature-responsive starches showed good barrier against oxygen, but no barrier against water vapor. The mechanical properties decreased with addition of glycerol to the films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap , 2006.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2006:42
Keywords [en]
Surface treatment of paper, hydrophobically modified starches, temperature-responsive starch, inclusion complexes, barrier properties
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-735ISBN: 91-7063-073-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-735DiVA, id: diva2:6450
Public defence
2006-11-03, Nyqvistsalen, 9C 203, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-03-15 Created: 2007-03-15
List of papers
1. Phase and gelation behavior of 2-hydroxy-3-(N,N-dimethyl-Ndodecylammonium) propyloxy starches
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase and gelation behavior of 2-hydroxy-3-(N,N-dimethyl-Ndodecylammonium) propyloxy starches
2003 (English)In: Starch, ISSN 0038-9056, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 569-575Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2003
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2097 (URN)10.1002/star.200300204 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-03-15 Created: 2007-03-15 Last updated: 2015-10-19Bibliographically approved
2. The interaction between surfactants and 2-hydroxy-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium) propyloxy starches
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The interaction between surfactants and 2-hydroxy-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium) propyloxy starches
2006 (English)In: Starch, ISSN 1521-379X, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 561-571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phase behavior of temperature-responsive hydrophobically modified starches and the interaction between oxidized potato amylose and hydrophobically modified potato amylopectin have been investigated by rheology, turbidity measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. When oxidized amylose was mixed with hydrophobically modified amylopectin, a viscosity peak was observed, indicative of a guest-host interaction between the oxidized amylose and the hydrophobically modified amylopectin. A series of oxidized and hydrophobically modified potato starches were investigated in the presence of an anionic and cationic surfactant. A coil-helix transition of the investigated starches was observed in the presence of surfactant, with the exception of a cationic surfactant combined with a hydrophobically modified zwitterionic starch of high positive net charge. The destabilizing mechanism (the phase separation) of the hydrophobically modified starches was studied as well as the difference in stabilizing capacity between the investigated cationic and anionic surfactants.

Keywords
Amylose, Hydrophobically modified starch, Helix, Surfactant stabilization
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2098 (URN)10.1002/star.200500481 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-03-15 Created: 2007-03-15 Last updated: 2011-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. Influence of polymer charge, temperature and surfactants on surface sizing of liner and greaseproof with hydrophobically modified starch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of polymer charge, temperature and surfactants on surface sizing of liner and greaseproof with hydrophobically modified starch
2009 (English)In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, no February, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2099 (URN)
Available from: 2007-03-15 Created: 2007-03-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Effects of film forming and hydrophobic properties of starches on surface sized packaging paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of film forming and hydrophobic properties of starches on surface sized packaging paper
2008 (English)In: Packaging Technology and Science, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect on mechanical and barrier properties upon addition of glycerol to temperature-responsive hydrophobically modified (HM) potato starch was studied on free films. The addition of glycerol lowered the glass transition temperature, the storage modulus, and the water vapor permeability (WVP) for the HM starch films. The HM starch phase separates upon cooling below an upper critical temperature into a solid and a liquid phase. Adding glycerol to the warm starch solution had an inhibiting effect on the particulate precipitation. Substrates surface sized with HM starch with various amounts of glycerol were investigated with respect to barrier properties; WVP, contact angle and Cobb values. Hydroxypropylated starch was used as a reference. Cobb values and WVP results on surface-sized substrates indicated that the film formation properties of the starches were of great importance for the final surface properties. Good film formation properties were essential for the gas barrier and water resistance while they were less important for high contact angles. The WVP decreased as the glycerol content of the sizes increased, but no sufficient water vapor barrier could be obtained. The HM starches investigated in this work provided good oxygen barrier and the contact angles indicated a hydrophobic character of the surface. The role of the precipitate was investigated, and surface sizing with the precipitate gave low WVP and high contact angles despite its poor film-forming properties under the experimental conditions. Cobb60 values were slightly improved for HM starch with increasing glycerol content over glycerol-free sizing.

National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2100 (URN)10.1002/pts.783 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-03-15 Created: 2007-03-15 Last updated: 2015-10-22Bibliographically approved

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