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Loss Recovery in Short TCP/SCTP Flows
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8731-2482
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3461-7079
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7311-9334
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) has been the dominant transport protocol within IP-based networks for many years, mainly due to the reliability it provide to its users and the congestion control it employs. However, as the amount of signaling traffic within IP-based networks have increased significantly in recent years, it has become clear that TCP is not suited for this kind of traffic. In order to meet the requirements of signaling traffic the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). SCTP is heavily influenced by TCP and is therefore similar to TCP in many ways. One example is the SCTP loss recovery and congestion control mechanisms which are almost identical to those of TCP. The primary purpose of this work is to study the performance and behavior of the TCP/SCTP loss recovery mechanisms for short flows. Using a simple client/server model, we evaluate the performance of these mechanism over a wide range of bandwidths, link delays and packet loss patterns. The experiments evaluate one TCP implementation and two SCTP implementations, and were conducted using network emulation. The experimental results show that there exist strong dependencies between the position of packet loss and the actual transmission time of the corresponding flow. In addition to these dependencies, we also found a number of implementation mistakes in the examined protocol implementations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2006. , p. 59
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2006:71
Keywords [en]
tcp, sctp, loss recovery, emulation, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-725ISBN: 91-7063-101-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-725DiVA, id: diva2:6419
Available from: 2007-04-13 Created: 2007-04-13 Last updated: 2018-08-14
In thesis
1. Improving the Timeliness of SCTP Message Transfers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Timeliness of SCTP Message Transfers
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Due to the cheap and flexible framework that the underlying IP-technology of the internet provides, IP-networks are becoming popular in more and more contexts. For instance, telecommunication operators have started to replace the fixed legacy telephony networks with IP-networks. To support a smooth transition towards IP-networks, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) was standardized. SCTP is used to carry telephony signaling traffic, and solves a number of problems that would have followed from using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in this context. However, the design of SCTP is still heavily influenced by TCP. In fact, many protocol mechansisms in SCTP are directly inherited from TCP. Unfortunately, many of these mechanisms are not adapted to the kind of traffic that SCTP is intended to transport: time critical message-based traffic, e.g. telephony signaling.In this thesis we examine, and adapt some of SCTP's mechanisms to more efficiently transport time critical message-based traffic. More specifically, we adapt SCTP's loss recovery and message bundling for timely message transfers. First, we propose and experimentally evaluate two loss recovery mechanisms: a packet-based Early Retransmit algorithm, and a modified retransmission timeout management algorithm. We show that these enhancements can reduce loss recovery times with at least 30-50%, in some scenarios. In addition, we adapt the message bundling of SCTP to better support timely message delivery. The proposed bundling algorithm can in some situations reduce the transfer time of a message with up to 70%.In addition to these proposals we have also indentified and reported mistakes in some of the most popular SCTP implementations. Furthermore, we have continously developed the network emulation software KauNet to support our experimental evaluations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University, 2008. p. 12
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2008:43
Keywords
SCTP, transport protocols, network emulation, loss recovery, Nagle algorithm
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2861 (URN)978-91-7063-202-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2008-11-07, Fryxellsalen, 1B 306, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-25 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
2. Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To provide Internet applications with good performance, the transport protocol TCP is designed to optimize the throughput of data transfers. Today, however, more and more applications rely on low latency rather than throughput. Such applications can be referred to as data-limited and are not appropriately supported by TCP. Another emerging problem is associated with the use of novel networking techniques that provide infrastructure-less networking. To improve connectivity and performance in such environments, multi-path routing is often used. This form of routing can cause packets to be reordered, which in turn hurts TCP performance.

To address timeliness issues for data-limited traffic, we propose and experimentally evaluate several transport protocol adaptations. For instance, we adapt the loss recovery mechanisms of both TCP and SCTP to perform faster loss detection for data-limited traffic, while preserving the standard behavior for regular traffic. Evaluations show that the proposed mechanisms are able to reduce loss recovery latency with 30-50%. We also suggest modifications to the TCP state caching mechanisms. The caching mechanisms are used to optimize new TCP connections based on the state of old ones, but do not work properly for data-limited flows. Additionally, we design a SCTP mechanism that reduces overhead by bundling several packets into one packet in a more timely fashion than the bundling normally used in SCTP.

To address the problem of packet reordering we perform several experimental evaluations, using TCP and state of the art reordering mitigation techniques. Although the studied mitigation techniques are quite good in helping TCP to sustain its performance during pure packet reordering events, they do not help when other impairments like packet loss are present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. p. 30
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2011:65
Keywords
TCP, SCTP, transport protocols, loss recovery, packet reordering, congestion control, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8920 (URN)978-91-7063-404-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-09, 1B364 (Frödingsalen), Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper V was in manuscript form at the time of the defense.

Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2016-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Hurtig, PerGarcia, JohanBrunstrom, Anna

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