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Left isn’t always right: Placement of pictorial and textual package elements
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8278-1442
2013 (English)In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 115, no 8, 1211-1225 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to investigate how the positioning of textual and pictorial design elements on a package affects visual attention (detection time) toward these element types. The study has a 3 × 2 (Stimulus × Location) between-subjects design. One pictorial and two textual package elements, located on the top right- or top left-hand side of a package, were used as stimuli. Visual attention was measured by eye-tracking. A total of 199 university students participated. The data were analysed using a two-way ANOVA and a Pearson’s chi-square analysis with standardised residuals. The results show that in order to receive the most direct attention, textual elements should be on the left-hand side of a package, whereas pictorial elements should be on the right-hand side. This is inconsistent with previous design directions (based on recall), suggesting the opposite element organisation. Previous research has focused on recall (whether respondents remember having seen package elements) or preference (whether respondents prefer a package based on element positioning). The focus of the present study was whether respondents actually saw the different elements on a package, and how long it took them to detect such elements. Detection time for certain element types can be viewed as a new and complementary way of evaluating the position of package elements. The paper also addresses whether preference is a result of easy information acquisition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013. Vol. 115, no 8, 1211-1225 p.
Keyword [en]
packaging, package design, visual attention, visual perception, eye-tracking, pictorial elements, textual elements, preference, retail environment
National Category
Business Administration Psychology Applied Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-25942DOI: 10.1108/BFJ-08-2011-0208ISI: 000323296100009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-25942DiVA: diva2:600531
Available from: 2013-01-24 Created: 2013-01-24 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. What Does it Take to Get your Attention?: The influence of In-Store and Out-of-Store Factors on Visual Attention and Decision Making for Fast-moving Consumer Goods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Does it Take to Get your Attention?: The influence of In-Store and Out-of-Store Factors on Visual Attention and Decision Making for Fast-moving Consumer Goods
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Decision making for fast-moving consumer goods involves a choice between numerous similar alternatives. Under such demanding circumstances, a decision is made for one product. The decision is dependent on the interaction between the environment and the mind of the consumer, both of which are filled with information that can influence the outcome. The aim of this dissertation is to explore how the mind and the environment guides attention towards considered and chosen products in consumer decision making at the point-of-purchase.

Consumers are equipped with several effort reduction strategies to simplify complex decision making. The selection of strategies can be conscious or automatic and driven by information in the environment or the mind of the decision maker. The selected decision strategy reduces the set of options to one alternative in an iterative process of comparisons that are fast and rely on perceptual cues to quickly exclude irrelevant products. This thesis uses eye-tracking to explore this rapid processing that lacks conscious access or control. The purpose is to explore how product packaging and placement (as in-store factors), and recognition, preferences, and choice task (as out-of-store factors) influence the decision-making process through visual attention.

The results of the 10 experiments in the five papers that comprise this thesis shed new light on the role of visual attention in the interaction between the environment and the mind, and its influence on the consumer. It is said that consumers choose with their eyes, which means that unseen is unsold. The results of this thesis show that it is just as important to be comprehended as it is to be seen. In split-second decision making, the ability to recognize and comprehend a product can significantly impact preferences. Comprehension stretches beyond perception as consumers infer value from memory structures that influence attention. Hence, the eye truly sees what the mind is prepared to comprehend.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2013. 89 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2013:5
Keyword
point-of-purchase marketing, influencing factors, out-of-store, in-store, shelf space, product packaging, package design, visual attention, visual search, eye-tracking, process-tracing, gaze cascade model, recognition heuristic, familiarity, decision-making, decision-making process, decision-making strategies, heuristic decision-making, preference formation, information processing
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-25947 (URN)978-91-7063-479-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-03-22, 11D 257, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-03-01 Created: 2013-01-24 Last updated: 2014-12-11Bibliographically approved

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Otterbring, TobiasShams, PojaWästlund, ErikGustafsson, Anders
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