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Enhancing SCTP Loss Recovery: An Experimental Evaluation of Early Retransmit
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8731-2482
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
2008 (English)In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 31, no 16, 3778-3788 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To reduce cost and provide more flexible services, telecommunication operators are currently replacing traditional circuit-switched telephony networks with packet-switched IP networks. To support the stringent requirements of telephony signaling (SS7), the SIGTRAN working group of the IETF specified the transport protocol SCTP. SCTP was developed to overcome a number of problems that follow from using TCP for signaling transport. However, the design of SCTP was to a great extent still based on TCP, and some problems related to signaling transport were inherited. For example, the loss recovery mechanisms in SCTP are almost identical to those of TCP. This is a problem as signaling traffic has stringent requirements on timely message delivery. TCP was not designed to meet stringent requirements on timely message delivery, and therefore the loss recovery was not optimized for it. To optimize SCTP’s loss recovery for signaling traffic, we consider the loss recovery enhancement early retransmit. To make early retransmit even better suited for signaling traffic we propose a packet-based version, which was also recently included in the early retransmit specification. By experimentally evaluating this algorithm, we show that the packet-based early retransmit algorithm, in some cases, can reduce SCTP’s loss recovery time by 62%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008. Vol. 31, no 16, 3778-3788 p.
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2857DOI: 10.1016/j.comcom.2008.04.024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-2857DiVA: diva2:54421
Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2014-11-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Improving the Timeliness of SCTP Message Transfers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Timeliness of SCTP Message Transfers
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Due to the cheap and flexible framework that the underlying IP-technology of the internet provides, IP-networks are becoming popular in more and more contexts. For instance, telecommunication operators have started to replace the fixed legacy telephony networks with IP-networks. To support a smooth transition towards IP-networks, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) was standardized. SCTP is used to carry telephony signaling traffic, and solves a number of problems that would have followed from using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in this context. However, the design of SCTP is still heavily influenced by TCP. In fact, many protocol mechansisms in SCTP are directly inherited from TCP. Unfortunately, many of these mechanisms are not adapted to the kind of traffic that SCTP is intended to transport: time critical message-based traffic, e.g. telephony signaling.In this thesis we examine, and adapt some of SCTP's mechanisms to more efficiently transport time critical message-based traffic. More specifically, we adapt SCTP's loss recovery and message bundling for timely message transfers. First, we propose and experimentally evaluate two loss recovery mechanisms: a packet-based Early Retransmit algorithm, and a modified retransmission timeout management algorithm. We show that these enhancements can reduce loss recovery times with at least 30-50%, in some scenarios. In addition, we adapt the message bundling of SCTP to better support timely message delivery. The proposed bundling algorithm can in some situations reduce the transfer time of a message with up to 70%.In addition to these proposals we have also indentified and reported mistakes in some of the most popular SCTP implementations. Furthermore, we have continously developed the network emulation software KauNet to support our experimental evaluations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University, 2008. 12 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2008:43
Keyword
SCTP, transport protocols, network emulation, loss recovery, Nagle algorithm
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2861 (URN)978-91-7063-202-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2008-11-07, Fryxellsalen, 1B 306, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-25 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2014-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To provide Internet applications with good performance, the transport protocol TCP is designed to optimize the throughput of data transfers. Today, however, more and more applications rely on low latency rather than throughput. Such applications can be referred to as data-limited and are not appropriately supported by TCP. Another emerging problem is associated with the use of novel networking techniques that provide infrastructure-less networking. To improve connectivity and performance in such environments, multi-path routing is often used. This form of routing can cause packets to be reordered, which in turn hurts TCP performance.

To address timeliness issues for data-limited traffic, we propose and experimentally evaluate several transport protocol adaptations. For instance, we adapt the loss recovery mechanisms of both TCP and SCTP to perform faster loss detection for data-limited traffic, while preserving the standard behavior for regular traffic. Evaluations show that the proposed mechanisms are able to reduce loss recovery latency with 30-50%. We also suggest modifications to the TCP state caching mechanisms. The caching mechanisms are used to optimize new TCP connections based on the state of old ones, but do not work properly for data-limited flows. Additionally, we design a SCTP mechanism that reduces overhead by bundling several packets into one packet in a more timely fashion than the bundling normally used in SCTP.

To address the problem of packet reordering we perform several experimental evaluations, using TCP and state of the art reordering mitigation techniques. Although the studied mitigation techniques are quite good in helping TCP to sustain its performance during pure packet reordering events, they do not help when other impairments like packet loss are present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. 30 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2011:65
Keyword
TCP, SCTP, transport protocols, loss recovery, packet reordering, congestion control, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8920 (URN)978-91-7063-404-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-09, 1B364 (Frödingsalen), Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper V was in manuscript form at the time of the defense.

Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2016-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Hurtig, PerBrunstrom, Anna

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