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Impact of short-term regulation on hyporheic water quality in a boreal river
Karlstad University, Division for Environmental Sciences.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3191-7140
2008 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 24, no 4, 407-419 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water regulation may alter hydraulic head gradients with consequences for the exchange of water between the river and the hyporheic zone. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of discharge on hyporheic water quality in a regulated Swedish boreal river during a 10-day experimental period with a sequence of alternating high- and low-flow episodes. A 250 m reach was instrumented with 28 piezometers placed at 150 and 300 mm below the river bed or below the mean groundwater level in the floodplain, and these piezometers were used to measure temperature, oxygen, electric conductivity and pH. High daily variation in air temperature during the first 3 days was transmitted vertically through the stream water into the hyporheic zone within hours. An oxygen saturation of 100% in the river water corresponded to 60–70% saturation at 150 mm depth and 30% at 300 mm depth. The hyporheic oxygen concentration at 150 mm depth decreased during the experimental period, falling into a range that is potentially harmful to incubating salmonid eggs. This was interpreted as a long-term response to the overall regulation regime, rather than a response to short-term water regulation during the experiment. Even though the effect of short-term regulation on the quality of hyporheic water in the river bed was limited, there was a more pronounced effect on the quality of floodplain hyporheic water. Most of the driving forces for temporal variation of water quality in the river bed came vertically from the river water, rather than from the lateral exchange.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 24, no 4, 407-419 p.
Keyword [en]
Flow regulation, hyporheic water, spawning habitat, floodplain, temperature, oxygen, conductivity, pH
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-1979OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-1979DiVA: diva2:5273
Available from: 2008-02-05 Created: 2008-02-05 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Re-establishment of connectivity for fish populations in regulated rivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-establishment of connectivity for fish populations in regulated rivers
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The hydropower industry has altered connectivity in many rivers during the last century. Many fish species depend on both an intact longitudinal connectivity to be able to migrate between spawning, feeding and winter habitats, and vertical connectivity for development and survival of incubating embryos and larvae in the gravel. The objective of this thesis was to examine problems and remedial measures associated with disrupted longitudinal and vertical connectivity in regulated rivers. The issue of longitudinal connectivity was studied in the River Emån by evaluating the efficiency of two nature-like fishways for anadromous brown trout. Telemetry studies showed that the combined efficiency for the two fishways in 2001-2004 was 60.5%. The passage efficiencies of both fishways were high for trout (89-100%), but also for other species such as chub, perch, tench, burbot and roach (74%). The attraction efficiencies were largely dependent on power plant operation, and generally high for the fishway situated next to the tail-race and low for the fishway situated inside the former channel. More than half of the trout spawners were also observed using the fishways for downstream passage. The densities of brown trout yearlings upstream of the fishways were higher after the fishways were built than during pre-fishway years. Smolts produced upstream of the fishways were observed migrating downstream in 2003-2005. The percentage of smolts that passed both power plants in was 51%, with losses being attributed to predation (15%), turbine-induced mortality (16%) and other reasons (18%). Turbine-induced mortality was higher (40%) at the power plant with four small Francis runners, than at the power plant with one large Kaplan runner (12%). The issue of vertical connectivity was studied in three rivers in Värmland, one unregulated, and two regulated, one of which had no minimum flow requirements. In the unregulated river, temporal patterns in hyporheic water chemistry correlated to variation in surface water chemistry and discharge as expected. In the regulated rivers, the hyporheic water chemistry showed little correlation to discharge or surface water chemistry. The intra-gravel water chemistry conditions for brown trout eggs were more favourable in the unregulated river, characterised by high oxygen levels, than in the two regulated rivers. The regulated river with no minimum flow requirements had critically low oxygen levels at the end of the incubation period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, 2005
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2005:56
Keyword
Attraction efficiency, Connectivity, Flow regime, Hyporheic water quality, Nature-like fishway, Passage efficiency, Regulated river, Remedial measures, Salmo trutta
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-1400 (URN)91-7063-028-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-01-27, Andersalen, 11D 121, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-02-05 Created: 2008-02-05

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