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Failure Modes of Adhesive Joints in Carton Board
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
2008 (English)In: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, ISSN 0169-4243, E-ISSN 1568-5616, Vol. 22, 2079-2104 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 22, 2079-2104 p.
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-1906DOI: 10.1163/156856108X338466OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-1906DiVA: diva2:4995
Available from: 2007-10-05 Created: 2007-10-05 Last updated: 2011-11-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanical Behaviour of Adhesive Joints in Cartonboard for Packaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Behaviour of Adhesive Joints in Cartonboard for Packaging
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A cartonboard package is often sealed and closed with an adhesive – either a hot-melt adhesive (adhesives that are applied in a molten state on the cartonboard) or a dispersion adhesive (adhesives that are applied as water-based dispersions). This thesis focuses on the process of hot-melt gluing, and how material properties and process conditions affect the performance of the adhesive joint.

Requirements vary depending on how the package is to be used. A package that is only supposed to protect the product during transport differs from one that is supposed to attract consumers and facilitate their use of the product. If a package has been opened, due to external or internal forces that cause a fracture in the adhesive joint, the consumer may choose another package instead.

A fracture of the adhesive joint may occur in several different ways; for example, a cohesive fracture in the adhesive, an interfacial fracture between the adhesive and one of the cartonboard surfaces, and a cohesive fracture in the cartonboard. The traditional way of testing the adhesive joint is to subjectively evaluate the fibre tear after manually tearing the joint apart.

The primary interest of this study has been to find an objective method that can characterise the adhesive joint – that is, its strength and joint characteristics. The work has principally concentrated on physical experiments where the Y-peel method has been evaluated and further developed, including the construction of a laboratory adhesive applicator.

Adhesive joint failure is analysed and correlated to the force-elongation curve during Y-peel testing in order to explore various mechanisms of the failure. The force versus elongation curves are transformed into a force versus inelastic deformation curve for the adhesive joint. The inelastic deformation of the adhesive joint is defined as the inelastic opening of the adhesive joint perpendicular to the cartonboard surface. The dissipative descending energy has been used to characterise the adhesive joint. High descending dissipative energy showed high resistance against final failure of the joint. This correlates very well with the manual fibre-tear test. Characteristic force-elongation curves in Y-peel testing – that is, the shape of the curve – have been analysed, and four main failure modes have been identified. The finite element method has been used to predict mechanical behaviour in the ascending part of the force-elongation curve. When it comes to local behaviour, a high stiffness adhesive results in bending behaviour while a low results in shearing, but on a global scale, no big difference was detected on the ascending part of the force-elongation curve.

The new laboratory adhesive applicator and finite element method can be used to objectively design the interaction between the adhesive and the cartonboard for a specific application. This can be achieved by modifying the cartonboard, the adhesive or the process parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University, 2009. 50 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2009:48
Keyword
Hot melt Adhesives, Carton board, Y-peel, Peel strength
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4731 (URN)978-91-7063-271-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-11, Ericssonsalen, 9C204, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-25 Created: 2009-10-02 Last updated: 2011-10-27Bibliographically approved
2. Fracture Behaviour of adhesive Joints in carton board
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fracture Behaviour of adhesive Joints in carton board
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

A carton-board package is often sealed and closed with an adhesive. Package requirements vary depending on how the package is to be used. A package that is only supposed to protect the product during transport differs from one that is supposed to attract consumers and facilitate the use of the product by consumers. Fracture of the adhesive joint may occur in several different ways, e.g. cohesive fracture in the adhesive, interfacial fracture between the adhesive and one of the carton-board surfaces, and cohesive fracture in the carton board. The traditional way of testing the adhesive joint is to subjectively evaluate the fibre tear after manually tearing the joint apart. The adhesives used in carton-board packages are either hot-melt adhesives (adhesives that are applied in a molten state on the carton board) or dispersion adhesives (adhesives that are applied as water-based dispersions).

The primary interest of this study has been to find an objective method that can characterise the adhesive joint, i.e. the strength and joint characteristics. The work has principally concentrated on physical experiments where the Y-peel method is evaluated and further developed, including construction of a laboratory adhesive applicator.

Adhesive joint failure is analysed and correlated to the force-elongation curve in order to explore various mechanisms of adhesive-joint failure. The force versus elongation curves are transformed into a force versus inelastic deformation curve for the adhesive joint. The inelastic deformation of the adhesive joint is defined as the inelastic opening of the adhesive joint perpendicular to the carton-board surface. The dissipative descending energy has been used to evaluate the adhesive joint. High descending dissipative energy resulted in high resistance against final failure of the joint. This correlates very well with the manual fibre-tear test. Characteristic force-elongation curves in Y-peel testing, i.e. the shape of the curve, have been analysed and found to have four main failure modes.

Using both the newly designed adhesive applicator and the Y-peel test method revealed a large discrepancy, about three orders of magnitude, between the theoretical thermodynamic analysis and the experimental test result. The new objective method can be used to design the interaction between the adhesive and the carton-board surface for a specific application. This can be achieved by modifying the carton board, the adhesive or the process parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, 2007
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2007:35
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-1191 (URN)978-91-7063-138-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-10-12, 9C204, 9C, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-05 Created: 2007-10-05

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