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Customer satisfaction in the first and second moments of truth
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8278-1442
2008 (English)In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 17, no 7, 463-474 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Almost everything consumers buy in a store has a package. At point of purchase, the first moment of truth, the package functions as a silentsalesman. Once the purchase is made, the product is consumed in the second moment of truth. The purpose of this paper is to create a betterunderstanding of how customers evaluate different aspects of the package in the first and second moments of truth.Design/methodology/approach An empirical investigation is conducted on how customers experience three different packages for everydaycommodities in the first and second moments of truth. Causal modeling is used to analyze the impact of different benefits of a package onto customersatisfaction and loyalty.Findings It was found that both benefits and attributes can have different roles in affecting customer satisfaction and loyalty in different parts of theconsumption cycle. Furthermore, the results show that there are significant differences for the impacts of customer satisfaction on loyalty in the firstmoment of truth compared to the second moment of truth.Practical implications By applying a consumption system approach, it is possible for managers to design a package that can attract customers inthe first moment of truth and at the same time create customer satisfaction in the second moment of truth.Originality/value The research shows that the role of certain benefits and attributes can be different in the purchase and use situation. Previously,this has been modeled separately but by operationalizing the first and second moment of truth in the same model the true effects of various benefitsand attributes can be identified

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008. Vol. 17, no 7, 463-474 p.
Keyword [en]
Consumer behaviour, Consumer psychology, Consumption, Customer satisfaction, Packaging, Point of sale
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-10980DOI: 10.1108/10610420810916362OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-10980DiVA: diva2:494543
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2014-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Leader of the Pack: A Service Perspective on Packaging and Customer Satisfaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Leader of the Pack: A Service Perspective on Packaging and Customer Satisfaction
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Almost everything we as consumers buy in a store has a package. Packages have many functions – some, if not all, present marketers with the opportunity to gain competitive advantages. The packaging influences the usage behavior long after it has influenced the purchase, therefore it is an interesting empirical context to study within the field of marketing. Nevertheless, academic attention to packaging has been sparse over the last two decades even though the industry focus on packaging as a strategic tool has grown over that same period. Exceptions in the marketing literature are investigations of packaging and brand communication, advertisement-package coordination, and packaging size and shape. In contrast to the traditional approach that views packaging as a complimenting non-product-related attribute, it is suggested in this thesis that packaging is a product-related attribute that does affect the customers’ experiences of products.

The overall aim of this thesis is to develop and test theoretical models and provide empirical evidence of customer experiences in the context of packaging from a service perspective. To study packaging from a service perspective is relevant for several reasons. One reason is that packaging can have several functions, which include more than the physical package. Another reason is that packages are carriers of information that is interpreted by customers. The combination of function, information, the physical package, and its content creates the total customer experience.

The results of this thesis provide increased knowledge about packaging and customer experiences from a service perspective. On an attribute level, quality attributes such as protection and usability are categorized according to Kano’s theory of attractive quality. The results show that customers’ evaluations of packages are multi-dimensional. On a comprehensive or an overall level, structural equation modeling is used to investigate the consumption process. We conclude that the quality attributes of packages need to be designed to display quality both on the shelf in a store and during usage and consumption at both the attribute and comprehensive level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2006. 73 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2006:58
Keyword
Customer satisfaction, Kano, Packaging
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-506 (URN)91-7063-089-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-15, Agardhsalen, 11D257, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-01-19 Created: 2007-01-19 Last updated: 2013-11-07Bibliographically approved

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