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Packet Reordering in TCP
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8731-2482
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop CCNet, IEEE Press, 2011, 136-141 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Packet reordering is now considered naturally prevalent within complex networks like the Internet. When packets are reordered, the performance of transport protocols like TCP is severely hurt. To overcome performance issues a number of mitigations have been proposed. While evaluations have shown the success of such mitigations, most have not considered realistic scenarios where other impairments are present. Furthermore, most studies only evaluate the performance of long-lived TCP flows, although short-lived flows are the most common. In this paper we evaluate Linux's built-in reordering mitigations and the TCP-NCR proposal using real protocol implementations. The results show that Linux and TCP-NCR are able to provide good protection against reordering when no other impairments are present. For flows that also experience packet loss, the performance is dominated by the negative effect of these losses. Results also indicate that short-lived flows are sensitive to how reordering mitigation is conducted. Linux was able to improve the performance of short flows slightly, while TCP-NCR performed worse than TCP without reordering protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2011. 136-141 p.
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8880ISI: 000304097200026ISBN: 978-1-4673-0038-4 (print)ISBN: 978-1-4673-0039-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-8880DiVA: diva2:462711
Conference
The IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop CCNet, Houston, USA, December 2011
Available from: 2011-12-07 Created: 2011-12-07 Last updated: 2016-10-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To provide Internet applications with good performance, the transport protocol TCP is designed to optimize the throughput of data transfers. Today, however, more and more applications rely on low latency rather than throughput. Such applications can be referred to as data-limited and are not appropriately supported by TCP. Another emerging problem is associated with the use of novel networking techniques that provide infrastructure-less networking. To improve connectivity and performance in such environments, multi-path routing is often used. This form of routing can cause packets to be reordered, which in turn hurts TCP performance.

To address timeliness issues for data-limited traffic, we propose and experimentally evaluate several transport protocol adaptations. For instance, we adapt the loss recovery mechanisms of both TCP and SCTP to perform faster loss detection for data-limited traffic, while preserving the standard behavior for regular traffic. Evaluations show that the proposed mechanisms are able to reduce loss recovery latency with 30-50%. We also suggest modifications to the TCP state caching mechanisms. The caching mechanisms are used to optimize new TCP connections based on the state of old ones, but do not work properly for data-limited flows. Additionally, we design a SCTP mechanism that reduces overhead by bundling several packets into one packet in a more timely fashion than the bundling normally used in SCTP.

To address the problem of packet reordering we perform several experimental evaluations, using TCP and state of the art reordering mitigation techniques. Although the studied mitigation techniques are quite good in helping TCP to sustain its performance during pure packet reordering events, they do not help when other impairments like packet loss are present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. 30 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2011:65
Keyword
TCP, SCTP, transport protocols, loss recovery, packet reordering, congestion control, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8920 (URN)978-91-7063-404-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-09, 1B364 (Frödingsalen), Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper V was in manuscript form at the time of the defense.

Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2016-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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