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Measuring Cardinal Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Examining objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. (Avdelningen för Psykologi)
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to examine measures of ADHD in adult persons. An instrument that reports objective measures of cardinal symptoms of ADHD in adult persons is used for this purpose. The instrument is called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus and records motor activity by means of an infrared motion tracking system and cognitive deficits with a continuous performance test. Paper I investigates sensitivity and specificity for the test with regard to ADHD in a clinic-referred sample. When the test was compared to clinical assessments, results yielded 83 % sensitivity and 57 % specificity. The high level of comorbid psychiatric disorders motivates continuous search for a composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms and better understanding of normative behavior in healthy participants. In Paper II, a composite measure of ADHD called the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) is developed. WCS integrates measures of ADHD cardinal symptoms on a ten point scale. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on the scale (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of healthy normative participants has high points on the scale (indicating low levels of symptoms). Levels of sensitivity and specificity for the test were examined with a measure called Prediction of ADHD (PADHD), and results yielded 86 % sensitivity and 83 % specificity. The measures developed in Paper II are tentative and needs to be tested in further studies in order to better understand behavior manifestations of ADHD in adult persons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2011. , 93 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2011:39
Keyword [en]
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Objective measures, Adults, the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, Psychometrics
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8004ISBN: 978-91-7063-374-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-8004DiVA: diva2:433012
Presentation
2011-10-28, Undénsalen, 11C 413, Karlstads universitet,, Karlstad, 00:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2011-10-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. In search for objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In search for objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus
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2011 (English)In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 7, no 3, 443-457 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clinical assessment tools for adult ADHD such as rating scales, interviews and behavior observations are often based on subjective judgments which enhance the risk of overlooking or misinterpreting symptoms. In search for objective measures of adult ADHD, the present study investigated levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus, in adult patients (N = 19) awaiting clinical assessment for ADHD. QbTest-Plus report objective measures of ADHD core symptoms using an infrared motion tracking system and a continuous performance test. The measures were collected and evaluated previous to clinical assessment and compared regarding the diagnosis of ADHD. Sensitivity for detecting ADHD with QbTest-Plus was 83 % and specificity was 57 %. The results, possibly affected by confounding factors, suggest further examination of calibrated and objective measure for the QbTest-Plus with regard to ADHD in adults.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trier: , 2011
Keyword
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, objective measures, clinical assessment, adults, the quantified behavior test plus.
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8147 (URN)
Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2012-11-29Bibliographically approved
2. Measuring Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus
2013 (English)In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, no 1, 48-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, occurs in about 5 % of the adult population and includes cardinal symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that may be difficult to identify with clinical routine methods. Continuous performance tests are objective measures of inattention and impulsivity that, combined with objective measures of motor activity, facilitate identification of ADHD among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine sensitivity, specificity and a composite measure of ADHD using objective measures of the ADHD-cardinal symptoms in adult participants with ADHD and non-ADHD normative participants.

Cardinal symptoms were measured in 55 participants having ADHD, 202 non-ADHD normative participants, as well as 84 ADHD normative participants using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus. This test measures inattention and impulsivity with a continuous performance test and hyperactivity with a motion tracking system.

A predictive variable for detection of ADHD called Prediction of ADHD, PADHD, yielded 86 % sensitivity and 83 % specificity. A composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms was developed with a Weighed Core Symptoms scale, WCS, that indicates the total amount of ADHD symptoms on a numeric scale from 0 to 100.

The total amount of ADHD symptoms was measured on a scale and predicted with the categorical variable in a majority of the cases in the present study. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the results with regard to additional clinical and normative samples. Careful consideration of potential gender and diagnostic subtype differences are noteworthy aspects for future examinations of the new instruments.

Keyword
Adults, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Psychometrics, Objective measures
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8148 (URN)10.1002/pchj.17 (DOI)
Note

Work is also part of H. Edebols licentiate thesis "Measuring Cardinal Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults". Status of the article changed from submitted to in press since then.

Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2013-06-27Bibliographically approved

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