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The effects of ration size on migration by hatchery-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3191-7140
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
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2011 (English)In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 20, no 4, 548-557 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibility to increase the proportion of migrating hatchery-reared smolts by reducing their food ration was studied. Lake-migrating, hatchery-reared salmon (Salmo salar) and trout (Salmo trutta) smolts were either fed normal rations, based on recommendations from the fish-farming industry, or reduced (15–20%) rations. They were released into the River Klarälven, western Sweden, and followed as they swam downstream to Lake Vänern, a distance of around 25 km. For both Atlantic salmon and brown trout, smolts fed a reduced ration migrated faster than fish fed a normal ration. Furthermore, a higher proportion of salmon smolts fed reduced rations migrated to the lake than fish fed normal rations in 2007 but not in 2006. This difference between years corresponded to greater treatment differences in size and smolt status in 2007 than in 2006. For trout, the proportion of migrating individuals and smolt development did not differ with ration size. Trout migrants fed a normal ration had a higher standard metabolic rate (SMR) than nonmigrants, whereas there was no difference in SMR between migrating and nonmigrating salmon. These results show that it is possible to use a reduced food ration to increase the migration speed of both Atlantic salmon and brown trout and to increase the proportion of migrating Atlantic salmon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 20, no 4, 548-557 p.
Keyword [en]
Atlantic salmon, brown trout, migration, standard metabolic rate
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-5591DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0633.2011.00503.xISI: 000296448500007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-5591DiVA: diva2:312504
Available from: 2010-04-25 Created: 2010-04-25 Last updated: 2015-12-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Relations between metabolic rate, migration and behaviour in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relations between metabolic rate, migration and behaviour in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 

ABSTRACT

 

Migration is common among populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, not all individuals in the same population migrate, a phenomenon referred to as partial migration. The aim of this thesis was to investigate if an individual’s behaviour and metabolic rate influences its decision to migrate and how such knowledge may be used when trying to produce hatchery-raised smolts with as high a proportion of migrating individuals as possible. In paper I the influence of reduced food ration on the proportion and swimming speed of migrating brown trout and Atlantic salmon smolts was investigated. Furthermore, the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of migrating and non-migrating individuals was compared. In paper II, a laboratory experiment, SMR was correlated to the behaviour of individual brown trout and Atlantic salmon. Dominant fish of both species had a higher SMR than subordinates (paper II). In addition, migrant brown trout had a higher SMR than non-migrant trout when given a normal food ration, whereas no difference in SMR between migrating and non-migrating salmon could be seen (paper I). When administered low food rations, smolts of both species migrated faster than smolts given a normal food ration, and the proportion of migrating smolts was higher for salmon given less food when the size difference for smolts from the two feeding regimes was large (paper I). Other factors that influenced migration speed were the degree of smolt development and water temperature (paper I). SMR was not correlated with aggressiveness, or with different measurements of boldness. Moreover, aggression and boldness were not correlated with each other (paper II). Trout showed a higher level of aggressiveness and acclimated more rapidly to laboratory conditions than salmon (paper II). In summary, there was no support for the existence of coping styles in migratory Atlantic salmon and brown trout. Instead, metabolic rates were related to both migratory behaviour and social status. Furthermore, an individual’s decision to migrate was influenced by ration size.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University, 2010
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2010:14
Keyword
Atlantic salmon, brown trout, Standard metabolic rate, behaviour, migration
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-5593 (URN)978-91-7063-300-3  (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-06-03, 11D227, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-05-18 Created: 2010-04-26 Last updated: 2011-10-31Bibliographically approved
2. Behaviour and metabolic rates of brown trout and Atlantic salmon: Influence of food, environment and social interactions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behaviour and metabolic rates of brown trout and Atlantic salmon: Influence of food, environment and social interactions
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), the decision to migrate or when to migrate is believed to be influenced by the individual’s metabolic rate (MR) relative its food intake. As MR was expected to be related to behaviour, the potential links between behaviour and metabolic costs was studied. For both salmon and trout the dominant individual had a higher standard metabolic rate (SMR) than its subordinate counterpart. Also, successful migrants of brown trout had a higher SMR than unsuccessful migrants, whereas no such difference was found for obligate migratory Atlantic salmon. Measures of variation in MR and boldness indicated that Atlantic salmon was more sensitive to stress than brown trout and became passive when stressed. When two trout were interacting, an increase in ventilation rate (VR) was positively correlated to fighting intensity. The first day after an interaction, VR did not differ between small dominant and subordinate trout (mean size 3.7g), whereas for large trout (26.0g) subordinates had higher VR than dominants. However, a combination of low temperature (10°C) and high water velocity (22cm/s) eliminated this difference. This probably reflects the high swimming activity of small dominants and the low motivation for dominants to defend a large territory when temperatures were low and the cost of moving was high. These results show that the relationship between MR and behaviour may differ depending on species, fish size and environmental factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. 30 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:4
Keyword
Salmo trutta, Salmo salar, behaviour, metabolic rates
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-9176 (URN)978-91-7063-408-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-24, Reimersalen, 9C 204, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved

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Lans, LinneaGreenberg, LarryCalles, OlleBergman, Eva

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