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Influence of surface treatments on the mechanical strength of hotmelt adhesive joints made of cartonboards
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, ISSN 0169-4243, E-ISSN 1568-5616, Vol. 26, no 20-21, 2339-2356 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of surface treatments including pigment coating, surface sizing and calendering on the mechanical strength of hotmelt adhesive joints in pilot made cartonboards was studied. The mechanical strength of the joints was investigated using the Y-peel test device at 23 degrees C and 50% relative humidity. Some of the samples were investigated with respect to the failure mode by scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces were characterized in terms of surface roughness, surface chemical composition, and adhesion behaviour. A strong adhesive bond displayed fibre tear. In addition to fibre tear, interfacial failure, i.e., failure between the cartonboard and the adhesive, was the main reason for fracture in the bonded assembly. The most important factor controlling the integrity of adhesive joints seemed to be the real contact area. The adhesive joints showed significantly higher strength when the hotmelt adhesive was first applied onto the rougher cartonboard of the assembly and then the smoother cartonboard was pressed on the adhesive than vice versa. The surface roughness of cartonboards mainly depended on whether the surface was pigment coated or not. Calendering displayed only a minor effect. No clear influence of surface chemical composition of the cartonboards on the adhesive joint strength was found due to the fact that changes in surface chemistry in this study also led to changes in surface roughness. The strongest adhesive joint was created between two medium-rough and surface-sized cartonboards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 26, no 20-21, 2339-2356 p.
Keyword [en]
Cartonboard, hotmelt adhesive, mechanical strength, Y-peel test, surface treatment, surface roughness, surface chemistry
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4970DOI: 10.1163/156856111X599490ISI: 000308362700004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-4970DiVA: diva2:278306
Available from: 2009-11-25 Created: 2009-11-25 Last updated: 2015-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanical Behaviour of Adhesive Joints in Cartonboard for Packaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Behaviour of Adhesive Joints in Cartonboard for Packaging
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A cartonboard package is often sealed and closed with an adhesive – either a hot-melt adhesive (adhesives that are applied in a molten state on the cartonboard) or a dispersion adhesive (adhesives that are applied as water-based dispersions). This thesis focuses on the process of hot-melt gluing, and how material properties and process conditions affect the performance of the adhesive joint.

Requirements vary depending on how the package is to be used. A package that is only supposed to protect the product during transport differs from one that is supposed to attract consumers and facilitate their use of the product. If a package has been opened, due to external or internal forces that cause a fracture in the adhesive joint, the consumer may choose another package instead.

A fracture of the adhesive joint may occur in several different ways; for example, a cohesive fracture in the adhesive, an interfacial fracture between the adhesive and one of the cartonboard surfaces, and a cohesive fracture in the cartonboard. The traditional way of testing the adhesive joint is to subjectively evaluate the fibre tear after manually tearing the joint apart.

The primary interest of this study has been to find an objective method that can characterise the adhesive joint – that is, its strength and joint characteristics. The work has principally concentrated on physical experiments where the Y-peel method has been evaluated and further developed, including the construction of a laboratory adhesive applicator.

Adhesive joint failure is analysed and correlated to the force-elongation curve during Y-peel testing in order to explore various mechanisms of the failure. The force versus elongation curves are transformed into a force versus inelastic deformation curve for the adhesive joint. The inelastic deformation of the adhesive joint is defined as the inelastic opening of the adhesive joint perpendicular to the cartonboard surface. The dissipative descending energy has been used to characterise the adhesive joint. High descending dissipative energy showed high resistance against final failure of the joint. This correlates very well with the manual fibre-tear test. Characteristic force-elongation curves in Y-peel testing – that is, the shape of the curve – have been analysed, and four main failure modes have been identified. The finite element method has been used to predict mechanical behaviour in the ascending part of the force-elongation curve. When it comes to local behaviour, a high stiffness adhesive results in bending behaviour while a low results in shearing, but on a global scale, no big difference was detected on the ascending part of the force-elongation curve.

The new laboratory adhesive applicator and finite element method can be used to objectively design the interaction between the adhesive and the cartonboard for a specific application. This can be achieved by modifying the cartonboard, the adhesive or the process parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University, 2009. 50 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2009:48
Keyword
Hot melt Adhesives, Carton board, Y-peel, Peel strength
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4731 (URN)978-91-7063-271-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-11, Ericssonsalen, 9C204, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-25 Created: 2009-10-02 Last updated: 2011-10-27Bibliographically approved

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