Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Pulp and Fibre surface properties of bleached hardwood Kraft Pulps: Influence of an A-stage
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
2009 (English)In: Paperi ja puu, ISSN 0031-1243, Vol. 91, no 7-8, 58-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hexenuronic acids in kraft pulps increase the demand for bleaching chemicals and cause brightness reversion of the bleached pulps during storage. They can, however, be removed by the use of hot acid treatments in e.g. the bleaching sequence, which is commonly used for eucalyptus in the pulp industry today. In this work three kraft hardwood pulps (two eucalyptus and one birch) were selected to study the influence on the surface properties of the pulps of a hot acidic stage (A stage) introduced prior to a standard ECF bleaching sequence. The sequences compared were A/D(EP)DD and D(EP)DD. The results were compared before and after the pulps were aged at room temperature for about eight months.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 91, no 7-8, 58-64 p.
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4121OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-4121DiVA: diva2:220730
Available from: 2009-06-02 Created: 2009-06-02 Last updated: 2011-11-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fibre surface properties of kraft pulp: The influence of wood raw material, bleaching and storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fibre surface properties of kraft pulp: The influence of wood raw material, bleaching and storage
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to study the fibre surface properties of Birch (Betula ssp.), Eucalyptus (E. urograndis and E. globulus) and Spruce (Picea Abies) pulps bleached using two different methods: ECF (Elementary Chlorine Free) and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free). The hardwood pulps were subjected to a hot acidic stage prior to ECF bleaching in order to remove hexenuronic acid. The effect of prolonged storage (ageing) on the fibre surface properties was studied for all of the pulps.

The characteristics of the fibre surfaces were determined by measuring the dynamic contact angle of single fibres (DCA) and by using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). The correlation between the fibre surface properties and the sizing efficiency of the hardwood pulps were evaluated by measuring the amount of alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) needed to reach a certain water absorption level(measured as Cobb60).

The birch pulp was more hydrophilic than the eucalyptus pulps, thus requiring more AKD to reach a certain water absorption value, and also had a lower DCA. The introduction of a hot acidic stage (A stage) in the ECF bleaching sequence applied to the hardwood pulps (i.e. A/D(EP)DD versus D(EP)DD) lowered, as expected, the total fibre charge due to the removal of hexenuronic acids groups (HexA). According to the DCA measurements all of the pulps became more hydrophilic after the A/D(EP)DD bleaching than after the D(EP)DD bleaching sequence. The sizing ability of the pulps, measured as the AKD demand to a certain Cobb60 value, showed that the AKD demand was more or less the same for the eucalyptus pulps regardless of the bleaching sequence used. The birch pulp, on the other hand, required somewhat less AKD in the A/D(EP)DD sequence than in the D(EP)DD.

The AKD demand to a certain Cobb60 value decreased further for the bleached birch and E. globulus pulps after ageing due to an increase in the fibre surface hydrophobicity. ESCA analysis revealed an increase of surface extractives on the pulps after ageing, which was also supported by ToF-SIMS analysis. It was concluded that there was an increase in fatty acids, fatty acid salts and possibly even sterols and glycerides on the fibre surfaces due to ageing. A migration of these components from the interior of the fibre wall to the fibre surface during ageing was verified in this study.

The TCF and ECF bleached softwood pulps also showed differences in their fibre surface properties that were tangible and thereby measurable. The dynamic contact angle was highest for the TCF bleached softwood fibres, i.e. these were more hydrophobic. Although changes caused by ageing were much more pronounced for the ECF fibres, all pulps became more hydrophobic upon ageing.

The hydrophobicity of pulp fibres can be determined using DCA, which is a rather rapid and economically viable analysis. Using this information, a paper/board mill can base its sizing strategy on scientific findings.

The ageing effects seen on the fibre surfaces in the form of the migration of extractives might be an important parameter from an industrial point of view, especially when pulps are stored and/or transported for a long time period. Nowadays it is quite common for pulps to be shipped around the world and subjected to warm and humid conditions. It is therefore probable that the properties of the pulp change in such a way that the papermaking process requires adjustment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University, 2009. 43 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2009:29
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4024 (URN)978-91-7063-252-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-06-12, Ericssonsalen, 9C 204, Universitetsgatan 1, Karlstad, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-06-02 Created: 2009-04-28 Last updated: 2011-11-03Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Authority records BETA

Germgård, Ulf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Germgård, Ulf
By organisation
Department of Chemical Engineering
In the same journal
Paperi ja puu
Chemical Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 68 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf