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Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort
Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
Australian Catholic Univ, Mary MacKillop Inst Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia..
Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Few studies have examined phthalate exposure during infancy and early life, critical windows of development. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study, a population-based birth cohort, ascertained multiple exposures during early life. Objective To characterize exposure to phthalates during infancy and early childhood. Methods Environmental questionnaires were administered, and urine samples collected at 3, 12, and 36 months. In the first 1578 children, urine was analyzed for eight phthalate metabolites: mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were calculated by age, together with factors that may influence concentrations. Trends with age were examined using mixed models and differences within factors examined using ANOVA. Results The highest urinary concentration was for the metabolite MBP at all ages (GM: 15-32 ng/mL). Concentrations of all phthalate metabolites significantly increased with age ranging from GM: 0.5-15.1 ng/mL at 3 months and 1.9-32.1 ng/mL at 36 months. Concentrations of all metabolites were higher in the lowest income categories except for MEHP at 3 months, among children with any breastfeeding at 12 months, and in urine collected on dates with warmer outdoor temperatures (>17 degrees C), except for MBzP at 3 months and MEHP at 3 and 12 months. No consistent differences were found by gender, study site, or maternal age. Conclusions Higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were observed among children in lower income families. Examination of factors associated with income could inform interventions aimed to reduce infant phthalate exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP , 2020. Vol. 30, no 1, p. 70-85
Keywords [en]
Phthalates, Children, Biological monitoring, Urine, Exposure assessment, Socioeconomic status
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76236DOI: 10.1038/s41370-019-0182-xISI: 000503057800006PubMedID: 31641275OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-76236DiVA, id: diva2:1384200
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-09

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