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Public Transport as a dynamic and transformative values based service eco-system for resilient living cities
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). (CTF - Srvice Research Center)
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Transformative and integrated transport system for living city regions are given a due slant for the societal and ecological perspective in a response for the many demands especially equality and democratization (Peñalosa, 2014), engagement and environment (Newman et al., 2009). Transformative service includes sustainability for providing a rich opportunity for significant and insightful study that repercussions social, collective and individual well-being (Östrom et. al., 2014 and Anderson et al., 2012). Service ecosystems need shared institutions (rules) to function effectively and coordinate activities among actors (Lusch and Vargo, 2014). These institutions, beside, have to cooperate in service ecosystems based on shared values and shared meanings (Edvardsson and Enquist, 2009). Public Transport as a dynamic and transformative values based service eco-system is about the role of governmental agencies and other stakeholders in the network (Enquist and Johnson, 2013) as part of moving from incremental progress towards transformational action for shaping an inclusive and sustainable business (Williams, 2014) for resilient living cities.

The main theoretical and empirical challenges are how to understand public transport as dynamic and transformative values based service eco-system for living city regions to develop and implement a feasible and proactive tool for changing the mindset. This paper is of an explorative comparative study based on the public transport value networks in four city regions – Stockholm, London, Paris, and Singapore.

Empirical and Theoretical Framework

 In this study, we see public transport as a transformative way, which is used as a tool for proactive developing of city regions for living cities (Kallidaikurichi and Yuen, 2010). These cities are in transition for a transformative change (Grin et. al. 2010): dynamic city networks, which learn and innovate (Campell, 2012), resilient infrastructure cities (Newman, 2010) including seven elements of a vision for more resilient transport (Newman et al, 2009) and cities as a world of mobile lives (Elliott and Urry, 2010). This is from transformative service perspective, which is conceptualizes the relationship between service entities and consumer wellbeing to serve as a catalyst for future research focusing on the transformative impact on services on consumers (Anderson et al., 2013). There, we also address Jan Gehl’s thoughts on “cities for people” in which public transport, cycling and walking are keys for a sustainable and vibrant city. He indicates that “The compact city – with development grouped around public transport, walking and cycling - is built around public transport, walking and cycling - is the only environmentally sustainable form of city. However, for population densities to increase and widespread walking and cycling, a city must increase quantity and quality of well-planned beautiful urban spaces that are human in scale, sustainable, healthy, safe and lively certainly alive (Gehl, 2010, p. IX). In this paper, we see public transport as a service eco-system (Lusch and Vargo, 2014) used as a tool for proactive developing of city regions for living cities (Kallidaikurichi and Yuen, 2010).

Today, Public Transport (PT) is built upon transformative way of thinking something more than operand resources (Lush and Vargo, 2014) too, which was used to be implied in a production oriented way (ibid.). We illustrate this understanding with a statement from Boris Johnson, Mayor of London. 

We can think of small cities that are lovely to live in – tranquil and green and blessed with efficient public transport. And then we can think of big cities that are global economic powerhouses – teeming with the noise, energy and ambition of million people. I want London to have the best of both worlds.

 In our study, these city regions, today, have big challenges to transform for a resilient and living city. Here are some examples of the four city regions from our current research:

Stockholm: Shifting the focus from vehicles to human beings: The big challenge for the region is space incrusted with congestion problems in a rapid growing population; Capacity problems in railway infrastructure; Lack of dedicated roads for busses. Public transport in Stockholm County should be easily accessible, reliable and environmentally friendly. The City´s Vision for 2030 describes what it will be like to live in, work in and visit Stockholm.

London: From 2011 to 2021 London’s population will have risen by a million. Need of an even better transport links to move people across the city to their jobs and homes. Future prosperity depends on a transport system that can support that huge population growth.

Paris: Like many European cities, has a strong transit system and a walkable central area, but over recent decades it has given over more and more space to the car. Now in a bid to reclaim its public spaces it is implementing a series of policies to reduce the number of cars in the city. The master plan for 2030 focus on developing an attractive metropolis at the same time as handling societal, environmental and economic challenges for the region.

Singapore: Changing commuter expectations and norms: Public tells that they will connected to more places and get them faster and more comfortable. Increasingly people are also voicing concerns about the impact of the transport system on the environment, whether it is noise pollution or carbon emissions, or impact on greenery and recreational place.

In this article Public Transit Service is seen as an Eco-system for transforming a larger and even more complex Eco-system: a whole city region. However, it has to face the challenges emerged during this process, which we call it “Transformative challenges”. Transformative challenges are embedded in the vision of these city religions and are concentrated on Social, environmental, mobility and resilience challenges of each city region.

Resilient Cities need to last and respond on crisis for change and build upon consensus around cooperation and partnership (Newman et al., 2009) The opposite is city build upon fear which make decisions based on short-term responses and the only driving force is competition (ibid.) The challenge is to breaking the norm of using cars in the city (Hajer et al, 2012; Gärling et al, 2013) and to find an alternative discourse for a resilient living city.

Lusch and Vargo (2014) give a lecture of strategic thinking of an eco-system from the lens of SD-logic zooming in and zooming out for seeing the bigger picture (micro, meso, macro) and designing for density and relationship (ibid. p.180 ff.). Lush and Vargo address this in a conceptual way but it doesn´t say so much what that mean in a real context. Lusch and Vargo (2014) focus on operant resources that are capable to acting with other resources (ibid. p. 181).

Developing a resilient and living city has a counter effect on sustainable development. The emergence of greening, especially “climate change” is one of the lead way developments in transport sector, which provides the input to deal with the transformation process of integrating sustainability into new infrastructural changes. Public Transport as a dynamic system is vital to the role of cities, governmental agencies and other stakeholders in the network towards creating a transformational action for shaping inclusive and resilient living cities.

References

Anderson L., Ostrom, A. L., Corus, C., Fisk, R. P., Gallan, A. S., Giraldo, M., Mende, M., Mulder, M., Rayburn, S. W., Rosenbaum, M. S., Shirahada, K., & Williams, J. D. (2013). Transformative service research: An agenda for the future, Journal of Business Research, 66 (8), 1203-1210.

 Campell, T. (2012) Beyond Smarter Cities – How cities network, learn and innovate, Earthscan, Routledge, New York

Edvardsson, B. and Enquist, B. (2009) Values-based service for sustainable business – Lessons from IKEA, Routledge London 

Elliott, A. and Urry, J. (2010) Mobile Lives, Routledge, Abingdon

Enquist, B. and Johnson, M. (2013) Styrning och navigering i regionala kollektivtrafiknätverk, Karlstad University Studies 2013:14, Karlstad

Gehl, J. (2010), Cities for People, Island Press, Washington.

Grin, J., Rotmans, J. and Schot, J. in collaboration with Geels, F. and Loorbah, D (2010) Transitions to Sustainable Development – New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change, Routledge, New York

Gärling, T, Ettema, D. and M. Friman (eds) (2013) Handbook of Sustainable Travel Springer, Heidelberg

Hajer, M., Hoen, A. and Huitzing, H. (2012) Shifting Gear: Beyond Classical Mobility Policies and Urban Planning in van Wee, B (ed) Keep Moving, Eleven International Publishing, Hague

Kallidaikurichi, S. and Yuen, B. (eds.) (2010) Developing Living Cities – From Analysis to Action, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, Singapore

Lusch, R. and Vargo, S. (2014) Service Dominant Logic. Premises, Perspectives, Possibilities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Newman, P. (2010) Resilient Infrastructure Cities in Kallidaikurichi, S. and Yuen, B. (eds.) Developing Living Cities – From Analysis to Action World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, Singapore 

Newman, P., Beatley, T. and Boyer, H. (2009) Resilient Cities Responding to Peak Oil and Climate Change, Washington, Island Press

Peñalosa, Enrique (2014), Key note speaker at Persontrafik 2014, 28th of October, 2014, Stockholm.

Williams, O. (2014) Corporate Social Responsibility – The role of business in sustainable development, Routledge, New York   

Östrom A. L., Mathras, D., and Anderson L., (2014), Transformative Service Research: An Emerging Subfield Focused on Service and Well-Being; at Rust R., Huang M. (edtrs.), Handbook of Service Marketing Research, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015.
Keywords [en]
transformative; service eco-system; resilience; living cities; Values; Public Transport
National Category
Humanities and the Arts Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70172OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-70172DiVA, id: diva2:1264226
Conference
22nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Consumer Services Science Canada Montreal 1 Jul 2015
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved

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