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Effect of Lap Belt Position on Kinematics & Injuries by using 6YO PIPER child HBM: in Frontal Crash Simulations
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Höftbältets påverkan på kinematiken och skador genom att använda 6åriga PIPER barnhumanmodellen vid frontalkrock (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Traffic accidents are the second leading cause of child fatality among children younger than 15 years of age. In the course of 10 years, the implementation of child restraint systems has decreased child fatality in traffic accidents with 50%, for children younger than 15 years. To gain an understanding of the kinematics and injury mechanisms of children in cars, finite element based human body models, representing higher biofidelity compared to crash test dummies, are developed. An FP7 European project, PIPER, developed a child HBM with an associated framework for scaling, morphing and positioning. The PIPER child HBM is scalable between the ages of 1.5-6YO, with scalable anthropometrics. This makes the PIPER child HBM, a powerful tool for analyzing children in vehicles. 

There are insufficient analyses conducted with the PIPER child HBM, due to its recent release. The purpose is thus to study the robustness of the HBM and its sensitivity to variation of lap belts by conducting a parametric study. Injury analysis and its sensitivity to lap belt variations were in addition studied in terms of kinematics by the study of submarining, the pelvic interaction with the lap belt, and the study of injuries related to the skull, brain, kidneys and liver.

A full frontal crash simulation of a 6YO PIPER child HBM, with anthropometrics, covering the 50th percentile, have been investigated. The 6YO PIPER child HBM was seated with no booster, Volvo booster cushion and Volvo highback booster, with variations of the lap belt. The hip interactions and the submarining response of the 6YO PIPER child HBM were studied, by the study of the lap belt interactions with the pelvis and abdominal organs. The abdominal organs were related to the liver and kidneys, and compared to published threshold values. 

This study showed that the overall robustness of the model was questionable. With respect to kinematics, the model indicated higher robustness, however, when conducted the crash simulations with the 6YO PIPER child HBM, it was concluded that the robustness was low due to repeated premature terminations. The 6YO PIPER child HBM revealed repeated errors such as, mesh distortions, negative volume and shooting nodes. When studying the sensitivity of the 6YO PIPER child HBM, when varying the lap belt angles, as well as changing the type of boosters in addition to vehicle anchorage positions, it could be seen that the 6YO PIPER child HBM was able to capture variations with respect to lap belt positioning. Hence, the model seems to be capable of providing relevant information regarding sensitivity for lap belt variations from the kinematic perspective, in terms of being able to capture kinematic o↵set, submarining and pelvis interaction with the lap belt. However, with respect to predicted abdominal injuries and head injuries, the sensitivity was not as distinct. Some limitations were observed in which the 6YO PIPER child HBM indicated unrealistic predicted injuries related to the head, which was associated with excessive movement of the 6YO PIPER child HBM.

Abstract [sv]

Trafikolyckor är den näst vanligaste orsaken till barndödlighet i världen bland barn yngre än 15 år. Inom loppet av 10 år har användning av bilbarnstolar i fordon minskat barndödligheten med 50% hos barn under 15 år. För att få en ökad förståelse om barn i bilar framtogs finita element humanmodeller som har en detaljerad anatomi samt responser liknande till människan. Ett FP7 finansierat europeiskt projekt, PIPER, skapade en barnhumanmodell med en tillhörande programvara som används för skalning, förvandling, och positionering av barnhumanmodellen. Humanmodellen är skalbar för åldrarna 1.5 år upp till 6 år, med olika antropometriska värden. Detta gör att PIPER barnhumanmodellen är ett kraftfullt verktyg att använda sig av för att studera barn i bilar.

Då PIPER barnhumanmodell lanserades nyligen, finns det i dagsläget bristfällig information om humanmodellen och programmet. Syftet var därmed att undersöka hur robust modellen var samt hur dess känslighet var mot variationer av höftbältet genom en parameterstudie. Skadors känslighet studerades dessutom mot variationer av höftbältet genom att studera kinematiken i form av underglidning och höftens interaktion med höftbältet. Dessutom studerades känsligheten på skador relaterade till skallen, levern och njurarna.

I denna studie har en frontalkrock med en 6 årig PIPER barnhumanmodell med antropometriska värden, som innefattar 50:e percentilen, undersökts. Den 6åriga PIPER barnhumanmodellen var placerad utan bilbarnstol, på en Volvo bälteskudde och på en Volvo bältesstol, där höftbältet sedan varierades. Höftens interaktion och PIPER barnhumanmodellens respons för variationer i höftbälte studerades. Interaktionerna med höften och bukorganen var relaterade till skador på levern och njurarna genom att jämföra med publicerad data.

Denna studie påvisade att den generella robustheten av modellen kunde ifrågasättas. Modellen hade ändock högre robusthet med hänsyn på kinematiken, men på grund av de upprepande felen vid simuleringarna, kunde man konstatera att robustheten på den 6åriga PIPER barnhumanmodellen var låg. När höftbältet varierades, både när bilbarnstol varierades såväl som vinkel på höftbälte, kunde man konstatera att den 6åriga PIPER barnhumanmodellen kunde fånga skillnaderna med hänsyn på höftbältets vinkel. Modellen var dessutom kapabel till att fånga känsligheten från det kinematiska perspektivet i form av kinematisk förskjutning, underglidningen samt höftens interaktion med höftbältet.

Modellen påvisade däremot ingen distinkt känslighet med hänsyn på skador relaterade till bukorganen samt huvudet. Några begränsningar observerades där den 6åriga PIPER barnhumanmodellen indikerade orealistiska skador på huvudet, som var relaterade till modellens överrörlighet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 75
Keywords [en]
PIPER, Human Body Model, 6YO, Full Frontal, Child Restraint Systems, Injuries, Kinematics, Abdomen, Lap Belt
Keywords [sv]
PIPER, Humanmodell, 6åring, frontalkrock, barnstolar, barnsäkerhet, skador, kinematic, bukorgan, höftbälte
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68709OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-68709DiVA, id: diva2:1238961
External cooperation
Volvo Cars; Chalmers University
Subject / course
Materials Engineering
Educational program
Engineering: Mechanical Engineering, spec. in Materials Engineering (300 ECTS credits)
Supervisors
Examiners
Projects
FFI, Assessment of Passenger Safety in Future CarsAvailable from: 2018-08-23 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved

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