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Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets
Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6463-8877
Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
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2017 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the risk for spontaneous combustion in storage of biomass pellets to be assessed, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating. There are traditional methods that are used to determine self-heating characteristics of fuels, eg, basket heating tests. The results from basket heating tests indirectly give the reactivity from a series of tests at high temperatures. This paper presents a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate at typical bulk storage temperatures. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used, eg, by storage security managers to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby for safer storage. A large number of tests have been performed to develop the test procedure presented. Different parameters, such as temperature, type of the test sample (powder/crushed or pellets), mass of test sample, and preheating time, have been varied. Furthermore, gas concentrations in the sample ampoule have been measured before and after some tests to study the oxygen consumption and the formation of CO and CO2. Three different types of pellets with different characteristics were tested to assess the variation in behaviour. Based on these tests, a screening test procedure is presented with a test temperature of 60°C, a sample size of 4 g, a 15-minute preheating period at the test temperature, and 24-hour test duration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017. 1-13 p.
Keyword [en]
Isothermal calorimetry, Pellets, Reactivity, Screening test, Self-heating, Wood pellets, Biomass, Calorimeters, Calorimetry, Carbon dioxide, Fuel storage, Fuels, Heating, Isotherms, Network security, Ore pellets, Pelletizing, Preheating, Reactivity (nuclear), Risk assessment, Screening, Spontaneous combustion, Technology transfer, Direct measurement, Gas concentration, Oxygen consumption, Screening tests, Test temperatures, Wood pellet, Testing, Natural Sciences, Naturvetenskap
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63942DOI: 10.1002/fam.2427OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-63942DiVA: diva2:1144018
Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2017-09-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Measurement of Self-Heating of Biomass Pellets using Isothermal Calorimetry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of Self-Heating of Biomass Pellets using Isothermal Calorimetry
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Self-heating in storage facilities of biomass pellet can lead to spontaneous combustion. This has resulted in many fires over the years, causing both financial and environmental losses.

In order to assess the risk for spontaneous combustion of biomass pellets during storage, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating, i.e. to determine its reactivity. This thesis presents experimental work performed to develop a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets, using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate. This method can be used to compare the reactivity of different biomass pellets. This could be useful for e.g. facility owners to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby facilitate safer storage.

The screening test procedure can also be used for research purposes. Experiments have been performed with 31 different biomass pellet batches to investigate how the pellet composition, origin, etc. influence the reactivity of the pellets. The results from these experiments clearly show a significant difference in reactivity between different types of pellets. The results indicate that pine/spruce mix pellets are significantly more reactive than all other types of pellets tested, and that pellets consisting of 100 % pine are more reactive than pellets consisting of 100 % spruce. Pellets produced from winery wastes, straw, or eucalyptus, have low reactivity compared to pellets consisting of pine and/or spruce. The reactivity of the pellets was shown to be reduced by either introducing certain types of anti-oxidants into the pellets or by extracting lipids from the raw material of pellets.

The screening test procedure is already being used today by some facility owners for assessing their fuels propensity for self-heating. The procedure is also one of the suggested test methods in “ISO/CD 20049 Solid biofuels — Determination of self-heating of pelletized biofuels”.

Abstract [en]

This thesis presents experimental work performed to develop a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets, using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity, that is how prone the fuel is to self-heating, of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used for safety assessment by the industry or for research purposes to investigate how different factors influence the self-heating potential.

Experiments were performed with 31 different biomass pellet batches to investigate how the pellet composition, origin, etc. influence the heat release rate. The results clearly show that there is a significant difference in reactivity between different types of pellets. Pine/spruce mix pellets are more reactive than the other types of pellets tested and pellets consisting of 100 % pine are more reactive than pellets consisting of 100 % spruce. Pellets produced from winery wastes, straw, or eucalyptus, have low reactivity compared to pellets consisting of pine and/or spruce.

The results also show that the reactivity of the pellets can be reduced by either introducing certain types of anti-oxidants into the pellets or by extracting lipids from the raw material of pellets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. 67 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:37
Keyword
isothermal calorimetry, biomass pellets, wood pellets, self-heating, reactivity, screening test, isoterm kalorimetri, pellets, biomassa, självuppvärmning, reaktivitet, screeningtest
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63937 (URN)978-91-7063-814-5 (ISBN)978-91-7063-909-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-10-31, 1B 309, Sjöströmsalen, Karlstad, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved

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