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Vilka var källorna? - en litteraturstudie av källorna under Kuwaitkriget 1991
2005 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
Abstract [en]

For journalists exercising their profession there are ethical standards set by the press cooperation council. For example that which journalists report should be objective which in turn entails comprehensiveness, correctness as well as the possibility of the receiver to judge what is fact and what are comments and views. The sources are a part of the world of news network and are likewise subject to the ethical standards of good journalism. In the case of war “normal” journalistic conditions are often put out of the running. Examples can be the limitation of journalists’ freedom of movement or preliminary examination and censorship of their material. During the Gulf War of 1991, several restrictions were imposed on journalists wishing to report “on site”. The purpose of this essay is to examine the significance of the sources during the Gulf War and determine how the media space is distributed between the two sides of the conflict. This essay deals with the distribution of the sources: Which sources where primarily used during the Gulf War? In order to answer this question a literature study of previously published research within this field was made. The literature in use is Johan Boberts “Att redovisa källor”, Stig Hadenius and Elisabeth Stúrs “Hopp och fruktan”, Stig Hadenius ”Sweden in an iron grip”, Håkan Hvitfelt and Karin Mattsons ”Gulfkriget – ett mediedrama i två akter”, Katarina Kisch and Claes Lundgrens “Gulfen och Baltikum – Sex TV-kanalers rapportering av två kriser”, as well as Stig Arne Nohrstedts ”Utanför poolerna” all gathered in ”Bilden av ett krig” published by The Board of Psychological Defence. Additionally, chapters by Stig Arne Nohrstedt and Hanne Mathiessen in ”Journalism and the new world order” were used. Some of the research only focus on the media perspective from a Swedish point of view, while others have a more international focus. This essay hence covers more than just the Swedish perspective. It became apparent that a vast majority of the sources came from the USA and the allied side. This predominance is partly explained by the fact that Iraq, by attacking Kuwait, actually committed a transgression of international law, that Iraqi media worked under strict governmental supervision and censorship and that the USA played a leading roll in the international media. The media that were on spot couldn’t report freely as a consequence of the establishing of a pool system and the preliminary examination that existed. The result wasn’t so surprising since one side had so much better opportunities to come thru with it’s messages. One example were the ways that news travels, where USA plays an important part. The role of CNN as a source was also brought up by several of the researchers; some meant that CNN did not play a prominent part while others argued that the channel had a large influence over other media. In the future it is important to take into consideration that the choice of sources actually affects the media contents in several ways, partly by choosing a specific source and partly by the view of the subject that the source is talking about. It is of fundamental importance that the media are clear and precise when they account for their sources, to allow later reviewing of how the media have divided their time between different sources and also to allow the media consumer to create their own opinion of how the media select their sources. It is important to remember that some of the sources also have their private agenda and interest in spreading their message to the public. The media community of today is very different from that of the time of the Gulf War. Today the sources have better ways of spreading their message via the Internet. This is open for governments, large organizations, corporations but also alternative movements which earlier have lacked the necessary funds to receive media coverage. The media consumer should have reinforced his or her position since there are a lager number of easily accessible sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. , 76 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-57569Local ID: MKV D-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-57569DiVA: diva2:1122181
Subject / course
Media and Communication Studies
Available from: 2017-07-12 Created: 2017-07-12

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