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Intake Approach and Dam Passage by Downstream-migrating Atlantic Salmon Kelts
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3098-0594
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3191-7140
2017 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 33, no 5, 697-706 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studying fish behaviour at hydropower dams is needed to facilitate the design and improvement of fish passage solutions, but few studies have focused on Atlantic salmon kelts. Here, we used radio telemetry (n = 40, size range = 50–81 cm) and acoustic sonar to study kelt movements in the forebay as well as their dam passage survival and subsequent migration success past multiple dams. We also compare radio telemetry and acoustic sonar observations of fish behaviour and used acoustic sonar to measure the depth distribution of fish approaching the turbine intake zone. Passage success at the dam was 41%, and mortality was largely associated with turbine passage (62%). The two fish that passed via the spill gates survived and continued their downstream migration. At the dam, all but one radio-tagged kelt approached the intake zone shortly after arrival to the forebay, and sonar data showed that approaching fish were predominantly surface oriented (72%, 88% and 96% of the observations were less than 1, 2 and 3 m deep, respectively). Turbine passage rate from the intake zone was higher at night than at day, indicating that the lack of visual cues may reduce the barrier effect of the 70-mm conventional trash rack. Turbine passage rate also increased with increasing hydropower generation. The percentage of observed upstream movements away from the intake zone compared with the total number of observations was considerably greater in the radio telemetry data (41%) than in the sonar data (4%). Only one fish survived passage of all eight hydropower dams to reach the lake. This low-passage survival underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of migrating kelts, and the fish's surface orientation as well as their rapid approach to the intake rack should be taken into account when designing such measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017. Vol. 33, no 5, 697-706 p.
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46902DOI: 10.1002/rra.3133OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-46902DiVA: diva2:1038778
Note

Was published as manuscript in D. Nyquists thesis and had then the title "Intake approach and dam passage by landlocked Atlantic salmon kelts at a hydropower dam"

Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams block migration routes and disrupt longitudinal connectivity in rivers, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Various fish passage solutions have been implemented to improve connectivity with varying success. A well-functioning passage solution must ensure safe and timely passage routes that are used by a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I report the results from telemetry studies where the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners, post-spawners and smolts have been evaluated in relation to hydropower dam passage. I evaluate downstream passage performance at dams with no passage solutions in the River Klarälven, and with simple passage solutions in in the Winooski River. In the River Ätran, I study both upstream- and downstream passage performance at a dam with sophisticated passage solutions based on the best available technology. In addition, I have studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

A substantial portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Most males migrated downstream in autumn following spawning, whereas females tended to stay in the river until spring. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality for both smolts and kelts. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. High spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. The best available passage solution, which consisted of a nature-like fishway and a low sloping intake rack to guide fish to a bypass, resulted in rapid passage of a large portion of the adult migrants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016. 41 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 42
Keyword
fish migration; fish passage; downstream migration; kelt; smolt
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46903 (URN)978-91-7063-725-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, Nyquistsalen 9C 203, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved

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