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Migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic salmon smolts
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3098-0594
S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center USGS-Leetown Science Center.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3191-7140
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46900OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-46900DiVA: diva2:1038775
Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2016-12-07
In thesis
1. Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams block migration routes and disrupt longitudinal connectivity in rivers, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Various fish passage solutions have been implemented to improve connectivity with varying success. A well-functioning passage solution must ensure safe and timely passage routes that are used by a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I report the results from telemetry studies where the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners, post-spawners and smolts have been evaluated in relation to hydropower dam passage. I evaluate downstream passage performance at dams with no passage solutions in the River Klarälven, and with simple passage solutions in in the Winooski River. In the River Ätran, I study both upstream- and downstream passage performance at a dam with sophisticated passage solutions based on the best available technology. In addition, I have studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

A substantial portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Most males migrated downstream in autumn following spawning, whereas females tended to stay in the river until spring. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality for both smolts and kelts. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. High spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. The best available passage solution, which consisted of a nature-like fishway and a low sloping intake rack to guide fish to a bypass, resulted in rapid passage of a large portion of the adult migrants.

Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams block migration routes, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Fishways and other fish passage solutions may aid fish to pass hydropower dams. A functional fish passage solution, however, must ensure safe and timely passage for a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I focus on downstream passage and evaluate the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon in relation to dams in systems with (1) no fish passage solutions (2) simple passage solutions (3) best available passage solutions. In addition, I studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

 

A large portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality, and high spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. Rapid passage of a large portion of the migrating adult salmon was achieved using best available passage solutions.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016. 41 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 42
Keyword
fish migration; fish passage; downstream migration; kelt; smolt
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46903 (URN)978-91-7063-725-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, Nyquistsalen 9C 203, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2016-12-07Bibliographically approved

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