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Development and test of the perceived accessibility scale (PAC) in public transport
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. (Samot)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5398-6633
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. (Samot)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6570-6181
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. (Samot)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7475-680X
2016 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 54, p. 257-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 54, p. 257-263
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42993DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.06.015ISI: 000382344800026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-42993DiVA, id: diva2:937171
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Perceived Accessibility: Capturing the Traveller Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived Accessibility: Capturing the Traveller Perspective
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of this thesis is introducing and proposing perceived accessibility as an important and so far overseen complement to conventional, objective accessibility in sustainable transport. Perceived accessibility is defined as the possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. Implications for sustainable transport planning along with possible social outcomes related to perceived accessibility are also discussed.

 

The thesis comprises two empirical studies. In Study I a psychometric measure (PAC) that captures perceived accessibility was developed and validated in three different datasets by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. All data was collected in Karlstad, Sweden in 2013 and 2014 with a total of 750 participants (bus travelers). Perceived accessibility is suggested as a complement to objective accessibility by contributing with the traveler perspective.  Study II aimed at examining determinants of perceived accessibility focusing on service quality aspects, feelings of safety, age, and trip frequency. Study II used the same data as Study I in a conditional process model to look at the relations between perceived accessibility and its proposed determinants. Service quality and feelings of safety were found important predictors of perceived accessibility, and safety also explains part of the effect of quality on perceived accessibility. These relationships were not dependent on trip frequency (as in how often one travels by public transport). Age also predicted perceived accessibility, and a follow-up cluster analysis showed that elderly and people in their thirties experience significantly lower perceived accessibility than other age groups.

Abstract [sv]

Denna licentiatuppsats behandlar upplevd tillgänglighet, det vill säga resenärsperspektivet på tillgänglighet, som ett viktigt komplement till konventionell (objektiv) tillgänglighet inom hållbart resande. Uppsatsen introducerar upplevd tillgänglighet och dess nytta och plats i forskningen samt implikationer för planering och utvärdering av hållbara transporter. Vidare behandlas påverkansfaktorer för upplevd tillgänglighet samt relaterade individuella utfall som subjektivt välbefinnande och social exkludering/inkludering utifrån teori och empiri.

 

Uppsatsen innefattar två empiriska studier. Studie I utvecklar och testar ett psykometriskt mätinstrument för upplevd tillgänglighet med data från tre enkät-tillfällen (n= 750) i Karlstad. Dataset 1 analyserades med explorativ faktoranalys för att få fram ett instrument som fångar upplevd tillgänglighet (PAC) och validerades därefter i två dataset. Studie II avsåg att undersöka vad som bidrar till upplevd tillgänglighet med fokus på kvalitetsattribut i resan (service quality), resenärens upplevda trygghet, samt ålder och resvana. Samma data som i studie I användes i en conditional process model för att undersöka sambanden, samt i en klusteranalys för att ytterligare undersöka skillnader i resultatet mellan olika grupper av resenärer. Resultatet visar att upplevd tillgänglighet kan ha betydelse som komplement till befintliga mätningar och utvärderingar av tillgänglighet genom att bidra med resenärsperspektivet. Ett antal påverkansfaktorer för upplevd tillgänglighet kan konstateras, däribland kvalitet samt resenärens upplevda känsla av trygghet. Betydelsen av kvalitet för tillgänglighet är densamma oavsett hur ofta man reser, däremot upplever de som reser ofta en signifikant högre tillgänglighet än de som reser sällan. Äldre resenärer och resenärer i 30-årsåldern påvisar signifikant lägre upplevd tillgänglighet.

Abstract [en]

This thesis proposes perceived accessibility as a complement to conventional accessibility in sustainable transport planning and evaluation. Perceived accessibility is defined as the possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes and captures the traveller experience and perspective of accessibility. The thesis introduces an instrument for measuring perceived accessibility (PAC) along with determinants for perceived accessibility, such as feelings of safety, age, and perceived quality. Related social outcomes such as social inclusion and subjective well-being are discussed, along with possible implications for transport planning and suggestions for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016. p. 34
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2016:33
Keywords
perceived accessibility, accessibility scale, transport planning, public transport, social inclusion, social exclusion
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42995 (URN)978-91-7063-714-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-09-08, Karlstad, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2017-01-27Bibliographically approved
2. Perceived Accessibility: Living a satisfactory life with help of the transport system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived Accessibility: Living a satisfactory life with help of the transport system
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis fills a gap in contemporary transport research and planning as it introduces perceived accessibility as a theoretical and methodological concept for incorporating the individual dimension of accessibility in current practice. Perceived accessibility is defined as “how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system”, and is proposed as a complement to objective measures and understandings of accessibility.

The thesis includes three studies. Study I developed a measure for capturing perceived accessibility with a specific transport mode, based on theories and conceptualizations of accessibility. Study II looked at determinants of perceived accessibility, and Study III further developed the measure of perceived accessibility to include actual travel (combinations of transport modes), and explored the relation between perceived accessibility and objectively measured accessibility for the same geographical area in Sweden. In all, the thesis provides background ideas and theory on perceived accessibility, and a validated quantitative approach to capturing perceived accessibility in day-to-day travel. Empirical findings further support the complementary nature of the approach and results indicate that assessments of perceived accessibility may be helpful in determining where to direct interventions aiming at improving accessibility by evaluating different transport modes or different segments of individuals. The method developed for capturing perceived accessibility shows merit in contributing to further theory development on accessibility by its ability to identify determinants of perceived accessibility and its potential in identifying segments of the population that experience significantly lower accessibility than other groups, and thus are at risk of experiencing social exclusion or suffer from transport disadvantage.

Abstract [en]

This thesis introduces perceived accessibility as a theoretical and methodological concept for including the individual dimension of accessibility in transport research and planning. Perceived accessibility is defined as “how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system”, and as it captures individual experiences and abilities, it is proposed as a complement to objective measures and understandings of accessibility.

The thesis includes three studies. Study I developed a measure for capturing perceived accessibility with a specific transport mode, based on theories and conceptualizations of accessibility. Study II looked at determinants of perceived accessibility, and Study III further developed the measure of perceived accessibility to include actual travel (combinations of transport modes), and explored the relation between perceived accessibility and objectively measured accessibility for the same geographical area in Sweden. In all, the thesis provides background ideas and theory on perceived accessibility, a validated quantitative approach to capturing perceived accessibility in day-to-day travel, and empirical findings supporting the complementary nature of the approach and its potential to differentiate between individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2018. p. 77
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2018:50
Keywords
Perceived accessibility, accessibility measure, transport planning, travel experience, sustainable transport, public transport, Upplevd tillgänglighet, tillgänglighetsmått, transportplanering, hållbara transporter, hållbart resande, kollektivtrafik
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69845 (URN)978-91-7063-890-9 (ISBN)978-91-7063-985-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-18, 11D 257, Agardhsalen, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Mistra SAMS (Sustainable Accessibility and Mobility Services)
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved

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Lättman, KatrinOlsson, Lars E.Friman, Margareta

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