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A household dishwasher heated by a heat pump system using an energy storage unit with water as the heat source
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper. (Miljö- och energisystem)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5101-3800
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik. (Miljö- och energisystem)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-9707-8896
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik. (Energi och hållbar utveckling)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5764-7062
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 49, s. 19-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Electricity usage by a household dishwasher can be reduced by using a heat pump system to heat the dishwasher cabinet, dishware and washing water. The evaporator obtains the energy from an energy storage unit which consists of a container filled with water which freezes to ice. The majority of the heat transfer from the energy storage to the evaporator occurs when ice is created in the energy storage unit. A transient simulation model of a dishwasher with a heat pump system was developed and compared to an experimental setup with good agreement. A simulation study of the compressor cylinder volume and the compressor operating time was performed. The results showed a 24% reduction in total electricity use compared to a dishwasher cycle using a traditional electric element.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 49, s. 19-27
Nyckelord [en]
Appliances, Energy use, Heat transfer, Freezing, Transient simulation, Appareils domestiques, Utilisation d'énergie, Transfert de chaleur, Congélation, Simulation transitoire
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Miljö- och energisystem
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39072DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2014.10.012ISI: 000348012500004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-39072DiVA, id: diva2:895442
Forskningsfinansiär
KK-stiftelsenTillgänglig från: 2016-01-19 Skapad: 2016-01-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Increasing the value of household appliances by adding a heat pump system
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Increasing the value of household appliances by adding a heat pump system
2014 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Historically, domestic tasks such as preparing food and washing and drying clothes and dishes were done by hand. In a modern home many of these chores are taken care of by machines such as washing machines, dishwashers and tumble dryers. When the first such machines came on the market customers were happy that they worked at all! Today, the costs of electricity and customers’ environmental awareness are high, so features such as low electricity, water and detergent use strongly influence which household machine the customer will buy. One way to achieve lower electricity usage for the tumble dryer and the dishwasher is to add a heat pump system.

The function of a heat pump system is to extract heat from a lower temperature source (heat source) and reject it to a higher temperature sink (heat sink) at a higher temperature level. Heat pump systems have been used for a long time in refrigerators and freezers, and that industry has driven the development of small, high quality, low price heat pump components. The low price of good quality heat pump components, along with an increased willingness to pay extra for lower electricity usage and environmental impact, make it possible to introduce heat pump systems in other household products.

However, there is a high risk of failure with new features. A number of household manufacturers no longer exist because they introduced poorly implemented new features, which resulted in low quality and product performance. A manufacturer must predict whether the future value of a feature is high enough for the customer chain to pay for it. The challenge for the manufacturer is to develop and produce a high-performance heat pump feature in a household product with high quality, predict future willingness to pay for it, and launch it at the right moment in order to succeed.

Tumble dryers with heat pump systems have been on the market since 2000. Paper I reports on the development of a transient simulation model of a commercial heat pump tumble dryer. The measured and simulated results were compared with good similarity. The influence of the size of the compressor and the condenser was investigated using the validated simulation model. The results from the simulation model show that increasing the cylinder volume of the compressor by 50% decreases the drying time by 14% without using more electricity. 

Paper II is a concept study of adding a heat pump system to a dishwasher in order to decrease the total electricity usage. The dishwasher, dishware and water are heated by the condenser, and the evaporator absorbs the heat from a water tank. The majority of the heat transfer to the evaporator occurs when ice is generated in the water tank. An experimental setup and a transient simulation model of a heat pump dishwasher were developed. The simulation results show a 24% reduction in electricity use compared to a conventional dishwasher heated with an electric element. The simulation model was based on an experimental setup that was not optimised. During the study it became apparent that it is possible to decrease electricity usage even more with the next experimental setup.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014. s. 44
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2014:46
Nyckelord
Heat pump, Appliances, ASKO, Energy system
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33596 (URN)978-91-7063-582-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-11-04, 9C203, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-30 Skapad: 2014-09-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-12Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Apply heat pump systems in commercial household products to reduce environmental impact: How to halve the electricity consumption for a household dishwasher
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Apply heat pump systems in commercial household products to reduce environmental impact: How to halve the electricity consumption for a household dishwasher
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In the household appliance industry, heat pump systems have been used for a long time in refrigerators and freezers to cool food, and the industry has driven the development of small, high-quality, low-price heat pump components. In the last few decades, heat pump systems have been introduced in other household appliances, with the express purpose of reducing electricity consumption. Heat pump tumble dryers have been on the market since 2000 and dominate the market today. A heat pump dishwasher was introduced on the market in 2014 and a heat pump washing machine in 2016. The purpose of adding a heat pump system in these three products was to decrease electricity consumption.

Papers I and II used a methodology where transient simulation models were developed and used to increase knowledge about how to decrease electricity consumption for a tumble dryer and a dishwasher by adding a heat pump system. Papers II to V showed that a lower electricity consumption and lower global warming potential together with an energy-efficient drying method, where no humid air evacuates to the kitchen, give a heat pump dishwasher competitive advantages compared to any conventional dishwasher currently on the market. Using simulations, this dissertation concludes that a future commercial heat pump dishwasher, using R600a as a refrigerant, will reduce electricity consumption and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) by 50% compared to the conventional dishwasher.

The willingness from the customer chain to pay extra for this heat pump dishwasher is because of the decreases electricity consumption and the fact that no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. This willingness makes the heat pump dishwasher to a variant which have possibility to succeed on the future market.

The challenge for the manufacturer is to develop and produce a high-quality heat pump dishwasher with low electricity consumption, predict future willingness to pay for it, and launch it on the market at the right moment with the right promotion in order to succeed.

Abstract [en]

The competition in the household appliances industry is strong. Manufacturers are continuously trying to develop, produce and sell product functions and features with good profit. To continually develop new features that the customer chain is willing to pay for is a key factor for a manufacturer to survive.

In this study has a heat pump system been added as a new feature to a dishwasher. The first heat pump dishwasher was introduced on the market in 2014 and the heat pump system was only used to heat the dishwasher. Comparing that first heat pump dishwasher was a new closed drying method introduced in this study where no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. Experiments and simulations showed that a dishwasher with an added heat pump system can decrease the total electricity consumption by 50% when cleaning and drying the dishware comparing to an on market conventional dishwasher.

The willingness from the customer chain to pay extra for this heat pump dishwasher is because of the decreases in electricity consumption and the fact that no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. This willingness makes the heat pump dishwasher to a variant which have possibility to succeed on the future market.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstads universitet, 2017
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:10
Nyckelord
household appliance, electricity consumption, heat pump, environmental impact
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Miljö- och energisystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48132 (URN)978-91-7063-759-9 (ISBN)978-91-7063-760-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2017-05-05, 9C203, Nyquistsalen, Karlstad, 09:15 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-13 Skapad: 2017-03-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-21Bibliografiskt granskad

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Förlagets fulltexthttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140700714002849

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Bengtsson, PederBerghel, JonasRenström, Roger

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Bengtsson, PederBerghel, JonasRenström, Roger
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Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaperAvdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik
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