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Elnätet och dess anpassning för elektriska fordon: En studie av hur ett lokalnät påverkas av ett ökat antal elektriska fordon
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
2015 (Svenska)Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)Alternativ titel
The power grid and its adjustment to electrical vehicles : A study of how a local power grid is affected by an increased number of electric vehicles (Engelska)
Abstract [en]

The availability of non-renewable fuels is decreasing and therefore the prices of both petrol and diesel has increased in recent years. As a result more and more chooses to invest in cars powered by alternative fuels and the focus has long been on electric vehicles. However, this means greater weight on utility companies around the world which now have to adjust to a higher demand. The purpose of this study is to investigate how a local network are affected by electric car chargers and be able to describe the degree to which a low-voltage can be loaded with electric car chargers for commercial and private use, in order to provide recommendations for the future dimension of the local networks. Few studies have been conducted regarding electric cars from a network and supply perspective, but have instead been focused on energy storage in the actual vehicle. Therefore, this study has been processed with an electricity grid perspective.

The intent of the study has been answered by both a measurement and several simulations. The study is based on Karlstad’s local electrical network and the commercial charging station Tesla in Våxnäs, Karlstad. The parameters of power quality for which this study has taken into account are load of the transformers, load loss, power factor, efficiency, voltage levels, voltage drop and asymmetry.

The methodological conditions have led to a result that can be used as a basis for an expansion of electric cars, big or small. The measurement was of great support to get an overall view of how the characteristics of a charging session appeared and how the quality parameters were affected during high as well as low power charging. Limitations within the simulation program have led to the calculations to carry out in a more extreme scenario when it comes to the load. A result since the simulation time for constant power was minimum one hour.

Based on the measurement and simulations of the charging station for commercial use is dimensioned well to cope with the current use of electric vehicle charging. More municipalities should follow Karlstad’s example for the development of commercial charging stations. In the countryside great problems occurred, especially with voltage drop at an increased use of home chargers for electric cars. The same problems emerged in the city part of the network. The study also showed serious problems with asymmetry in the city. The report concluded, therefore, several recommendations for the future dimension of local networks for private homes, for example that the local network should be divided into multiple trails.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2015. , s. 57
Nyckelord [en]
powergrid, electric vehicles, solar power, voltage loss, efficiency
Nyckelord [sv]
elnät, elbilar, solceller, spänningsfall, verkningsgrad
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37828OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-37828DiVA, id: diva2:850934
Externt samarbete
Karlstads El och Stadsnät
Ämne / kurs
Elektroteknik
Utbildningsprogram
Högskoleingenjörsprogrammet i Elektroteknik, 180 hp
Handledare
Examinatorer
Tillgänglig från: 2015-09-03 Skapad: 2015-09-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-09-03Bibliografiskt granskad

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