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Sample Size and Chi-Squared Test of Fit: A comparison Between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method Using Swedish Adolescent Data
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9541-3673
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS) 2014 Conference Proceedings: Rasch and the Future / [ed] Zhang, Quan., & Yang, Hong. (Eds.), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, s. 197-211Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Background: Significance tests are commonly sensitive to sample size, and Chi-Squared statistics is not an exception. Nevertheless, Chi-Squared statistics are commonly used for test of fit of measurement models. Thus, for analysts working with very large (or very small) sample sizes this may require particular attention. However, several different approaches to handle a large sample size in test of fit analysis have been developed. Thus, one strategy may be to adjust the fit statistic to correspond to an equivalent sample of different size. This strategy has been implemented in the RUMM2030 software. Another strategy may be to adopt a random sample approach.

Aims: The RUMM2030 Chi-Square value adjustment facility has been available for a long time, but still there are few studies describing the empirical consequences of adjusting the sample to correspond to a smaller effective sample size in the statistical analysis of fit. Alternatively a random sample approach could be adopted in order to handle the large sample size problem. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare these two strategies as test of fit approximations, using Swedish adolescent data. 

Sample:The analysis is based on the survey Young in Värmland which is a paper-and-pencil based survey conducted recurrently since 1988 targeting all adolescent in school year 9 residing the county of Värmland, Sweden. So far, more than 20,000 individuals have participated in the survey. In the analysis presented here, seven items based on the adolescents, experiences of the school environment were subjected to analysis, in total 21,088 individuals.

Methods: For the purposes of this study, the original sample size was adjusted to several different effective samples using the RUMM2030 adjustment function, in the test of fit analysis. In addition, 10 random samples for each sample size were drawn from the original sample, and averaged Chi-Square values calculated. The Chi-Square values obtained using the two strategies were compared.

Results: Given the original sample of 21,000, adjusting to samples 5,000 or larger, the RUMM2030 adjustment facility work as well as a random sample approach. In contrast, when adjusting to lower samples the adjustment function is less effective in approximating the Chi-Square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, fit is exaggerated and misfit under estimated using the adjustment function, in particular is that true for fitting but not misfitting items.  

Conclusion: Even though the inferences based on p-values may be the same despite big Chi-Square value differences between the two approaches, the danger of using fit statistics mechanically cannot be enough stressed. Neither the adjustment function, nor the random sample approach is sufficient in evaluating model fit, instead several complementing methods should be used.

 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015. s. 197-211
Serie
Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS) 2014 Conference Proceedings
Emneord [en]
Polytomousrasch model, Rasch model for ordered response categories, Fit analysis, Chi-Squared statistics, Random samples, Adjusted samples
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37414DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-47490-7_15ISBN: 978-3-662-47490-7 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-37414DiVA, id: diva2:845088
Konferanse
PROMS 2014 (Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium). 2-6 August 2014, Guangzhou, China.
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-08-10 Laget: 2015-08-10 Sist oppdatert: 2016-08-17bibliografisk kontrollert

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