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Designing for Usable Privacy and Transparency in Digital Transactions
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan. (HumanIT, PriSec)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0101-2498
2015 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)Alternativ tittel
Designing for Usable Privacy and Transparency in Digital Transactions : Exploring and enhancing the usability and user experience aspects of selected privacy and transparency technologies (engelsk)
Abstract [en]

People engage with multiple online services and carry out a range of different digital transactions with these services. Registering an account, sharing content in social networks, or requesting products or services online are a few examples of such digital transactions. With every transaction, people take decisions and make disclosures of personal data. Despite the possible benefits of collecting data about a person or a group of people, massive collection and aggregation of personal data carries a series of privacy and security implications which can ultimately result in a threat to people's dignity, their finances, and many other aspects of their lives. For this reason, privacy and transparency enhancing technologies are being developed to help people protect their privacy and personal data online. However, some of these technologies are usually hard to understand, difficult to use, and get in the way of people's momentary goals.

The objective of this thesis is to explore, and iteratively improve, the usability and user experience provided by novel privacy and transparency technologies. To this end, it compiles a series of case studies that address identified issues of usable privacy and transparency at four stages of a digital transaction, namely the information, agreement, fulfilment and after-sales stages. These studies contribute with a better understanding of the human-factors and design requirements that are necessary for creating user-friendly tools that can help people to protect their privacy and to control their personal information on the Internet.

Abstract [en]

People engage with multiple online services and carry out a range of different digital transactions with these services. Registering an account, sharing content in social networks, or requesting products or services online are a few examples of such digital transactions. With every transaction, people take decisions and make disclosures of personal data. Despite the possible benefits of collecting data about a person or a group of people, massive collection and aggregation of personal data carries a series of privacy and security implications which can ultimately result in a threat to people's dignity, their finances, and many other aspects of their lives. For this reason, privacy and transparency enhancing technologies are being developed to help people protect their privacy and personal data online. However, some of these technologies are usually hard to understand, difficult to use, and get in the way of people's momentary goals.

The objective of this thesis is to explore, and iteratively improve, the usability and user experience provided by novel privacy and transparency technologies. To this end, it compiles a series of case studies that address identified issues of usable privacy and transparency at four stages of a digital transaction, namely the informationagreementfulfilment and after-sales stages. These studies contribute with a better understanding of the human-factors and design requirements that are necessary for creating user-friendly tools that can help people to protect their privacy and to control their personal information on the Internet.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015. , s. 96
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2015:30
Emneord [en]
Usable privacy, usable transparency, usability, user experience, mental models, mobile devices, digital transactions, e-commerce, user interfaces
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Informatik; Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35921ISBN: 978-91-7063-646-2 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-35921DiVA, id: diva2:808762
Disputas
2015-06-10, 1 B364, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 09:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-21 Laget: 2015-04-27 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-04bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. What Would It Take for You to Tell Your Secrets to a Cloud?: Studying decision factors when disclosing information to cloud services
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>What Would It Take for You to Tell Your Secrets to a Cloud?: Studying decision factors when disclosing information to cloud services
2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Secure IT Systems: 19th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2014, Tromsø, Norway, October 15-17, 2014, Proceedings, Springer, 2014, Vol. 8788, s. 129-145Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

We investigate the end users’ behaviours and attitudes with regards to the control they place in the personal information that they disclose to cloud storage services. Three controlled experiments were carried out to study the influence in users’ decisions to retain or surrender control over their personal information depending on different factors. The results of these experiments reveal, among other things, the users’ willingness to surrender control over personal information that is perceived as non-sensitive in exchange for valuable rewards, and that users would value the possibility of knowing and controlling the parties who are granted access to their data in the cloud. Based on the results from the experiments we provide implications for the design of end-user tools that can promote transparency and accountability in cloud computing environments.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer, 2014
Emneord
Cloud computing mental models HCI UX privacy security accountability transparency psychology information control
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap; Informatik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35854 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-11599-3_8 (DOI)978-3-319-11599-3 (ISBN)
Konferanse
Nordic Conference on Secure IT Systems
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 317550
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-04-15 Laget: 2015-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management
2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 20, s. 4-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses the approach taken within the PrimeLife project for providing user-friendly privacy policy interfaces for the PrimeLife Policy Language (PPL).We present the requirements, design process and usability testing of the “Send Data?” prototype, a browser extension designed and developed to deal with the powerful features provided by PPL. Our interface introduces the novel features of “on the fly” privacy management, predefined levels of privacy settings, and simplified selectionof anonymous credentials. Results from usability tests showed that users understand and appreciate these features and perceive them as being privacy-friendly, and they are therefore suggested as a good approach towards usable privacy policy display and management. Additionally, we present our lessons learnt in the design process of privacy policy interfaces.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
Emneord
Internet, Online operations, Privacy, Data Security, Web site design, PrimeLife Policy Language, Usability, Privacy policy interfaces, Credential selection
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-14836 (URN)10.1108/09685221211219155 (DOI)
Prosjekter
PrimeLife
Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-09-24 Laget: 2012-09-18 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-04bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials
2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, s. 1-14Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
Serie
LNCS, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 7039
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-12118 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-27585-2_1 (DOI)000306351500001 ()978-3-642-27584-5 (ISBN)
Konferanse
IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security, Lucerne
Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-03-09 Laget: 2012-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2018-07-16bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Identity Management through “Profiles”: Prototyping an Online Information Segregation Service
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Identity Management through “Profiles”: Prototyping an Online Information Segregation Service
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Human-Computer Interaction. Users and Contexts of Use: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 8006, s. 10-19Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Whereas in real everyday life individuals have an intuitive approach at deciding which information to disseminate to others, in the digital world it becomes difficult to keep control over the information that is distributed to different online services. In this paper we present the design of a user interface for a system that can help users decide which pieces of information to distribute to which type of service providers by allowing them to segregate their information attributes into various personalized profiles. Iterative usability evaluations showed that users understand and appreciate the possibility to segregate information, and revealed possible improvements, implications and limitations of such an interface.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Serie
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
Emneord
Usability, identity management, privacy preferences, partial identities, audience segregation, digital transactions
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35846 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-39265-8_2 (DOI)978-3-642-39264-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-39265-8 (ISBN)
Konferanse
Human-Computer Interaction International, 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part III
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-04-15 Laget: 2015-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
5. Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones
2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Privacy and Identity Managementfor Life: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School 2011 / [ed] an Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, and Giovanni Russello, Springer, 2011, s. 130-143Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

The use of mobile smart devices for storing sensitive informationand accessing online services is increasing. At the same time, methods for authenticating users into their devices and online services that are not only secure, but also privacy and user-friendly are needed. In this paper, we present our initial explorations of the use of lock pattern dynamics as a secure and user-friendly two-factor authentication method. We developed an application for the Android mobile platform to collect data on the way individuals draw lock patterns on a touchscreen. Using a Random Forest machine learning classier this method achieves an average Equal Error Rate (EER) of approximately 10.39%, meaning that lock patterns biometrics can be used for identifying users towards their device, but could also pose a threat to privacy if the users' biometric information is handled outside their control.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer, 2011
Serie
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238 ; Vol. 375
Emneord
Mobile user experience, biometrics, smart mobile devices, mobile identity management, mobile authentication, privacy, lock patterns
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-14830 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-31668-5_10 (DOI)978-3-642-31667-8 (ISBN)978-3-642-31668-5 (ISBN)
Konferanse
International Summer School 2011, Trento Italy
Prosjekter
U-PrIM (Usable Privacy-enhancing Identity Management for smart applications)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-09-19 Laget: 2012-09-18 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-12bibliografisk kontrollert
6. Understanding the user experience of secure mobile online transactions in realistic contexts of use
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Understanding the user experience of secure mobile online transactions in realistic contexts of use
Vise andre…
2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2012, Washington D.C.,USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, s. 8-Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Possible attacks on mobile smart devices demand higher security for applications handling payments or sensitive information. The introduction of a tamper-proof area on future generations of mobile devices, called Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), is being implemented. Before devices with embedded TEEs can be deployed to the public, investigations on usability aspects of Trusted User Interfaces (TUI) are needed. This article describes the process we have followed at gathering requirements, prototyping and testing suitable designs for TUIs in combination with a touch-screen biometric system. At the end, we present relevant findings of a pilot study that we have conducted using an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as part of our ongoing work.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Washington D.C.,USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012
Emneord
Usable Security, Secure Mobile UIs, Trusted Executing Environment, Biometrics, Experience Sampling Method
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap; Informatik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-14831 (URN)
Konferanse
Workshop on Usable Privacy & Security for Mobile Devices (U-PriSM), Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS), July 11-12 2012 Washington
Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-09-19 Laget: 2012-09-18 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-09bibliografisk kontrollert
7. Usable Transparency with the Data Track: A Tool for Visualizing Data Disclosures
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Usable Transparency with the Data Track: A Tool for Visualizing Data Disclosures
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: CHI EA '15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems / [ed] Bo Begole, Jinwoo Kim, Kori Inkpen, Woontack Woo, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, s. 1803-18098Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

We present a prototype of the user interface of a transparency tool that displays an overview of a user's data disclosures to different online service providers and allows them to access data collected about them stored at the services' sides. We explore one particular type of visualization method consisting of tracing lines that connect a user's disclosed personal attributes to the service to which these attributes have been disclosed. We report on the ongoing iterative process of design of such visualization, the challenges encountered and the possibilities for future improvements.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38926 (URN)10.1145/2702613.2732701 (DOI)978-1-4503-3146-3 (ISBN)
Konferanse
33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Seoul, CHI 2015 Extended Abstracts, Republic of Korea, April 18 - 23, 2015
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-12-20 Laget: 2015-12-20 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-04bibliografisk kontrollert
8. “WTH..!?!” Experiences, reactions, and expectations related to online privacy panic situations
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>“WTH..!?!” Experiences, reactions, and expectations related to online privacy panic situations
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap; Informatik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35838 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-04-15 Laget: 2015-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert

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