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Galling resistance and wear mechanisms for cold-work tool steels in lubricated sliding against high strength stainless steel sheets
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. (Materialteknik)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8144-8821
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. (Materialvetenskap)
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. (Materialvetenskap)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9441-2502
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. (Materialvetenskap)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6029-2613
2012 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 286-287, p. 92-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tool damage in sheet metal forming of stainless steel is of high concern for the forming industry. In the present work, ingot cast AISI D2 and advanced powder metallurgy tool steel (PM) cold-work tool steels were evaluated and ranked regarding wear mechanisms and galling resistance. Wear tests were performed using a slider-on-flat-surface (SOFS) tribometer in sliding against austenitic–ferritic (duplex) stainless steel sheets at different contact pressures in lubricated conditions. The best galling resistance was observed for the nitrogen alloyed PM tool steels. Abrasive scratching of the tool surfaces and transfer of sheet material due to adhesive wear were the main metal forming tool surface damage mechanisms. By increasing the hardness of one PM sheet metal forming tool grade, the galling resistance was enhanced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012. Vol. 286-287, p. 92-97
Keywords [en]
Galling, Wear, Tribology, Stainless steel, Tool steel
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15337DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2011.04.002ISI: 000304743600012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-15337DiVA, id: diva2:562940
Note

Tribology in Manufacturing Processes

Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The early stage of galling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The early stage of galling
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In sheet metal forming (SMF) of materials such as stainless steels there is a major problem with transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the metal forming tool surface. The problem is known as galling; a kind of severe adhesive wear, which results in severe scratching of produced parts. In this thesis, galling observed in contacts between tool steels and stainless steel sheets under lubricated sliding conditions was studied, focusing on the early stage of galling. It was found that changes in friction cannot be used as galling indicator in the early stage of galling because transfer and accumulation of sheet material happens even though friction is low and stable. The progression of galling is influenced by tool steel damage occurring around the tool steel hard phases caused by sheet material flow, which results in formation of wear-induced galling initiation sites. A correlation between the critical contact pressure to galling and sheet material proof stress was found. Galling happened at lower pressures for sheet material with lower proof stress possibly due to easier sheet material flow, resulting in quicker tool damage. Material transfer and tool steel damage were delayed for tool steels comprising homogenously distributed, small and high hard phases. Additionally, the galling resistance was higher for tool steels with higher hardness due to decreased tool steel damage. In a comparison between observations of the worn tool surfaces after wear tests and calculations in FEM it was found that material transfer did not take place at regions with highest contact pressures but at regions with highest plastic strains. The results obtained in this thesis indicate that tool steel damage and sheet material flow occurring in the contact during sliding are important factors influencing galling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. p. 41
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:51
Keywords
Galling, Stainless steel, Tool steel, Friction, Sliding wear, SOFS, Tribology, Wear
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15345 (URN)978-91-7063-462-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-12-07, Eva Erikssonsalen, 21A 342, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-11-21 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
2. The influence of tool steel microstructure on galling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of tool steel microstructure on galling
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In sheet metal forming (SMF) of materials such as stainless steels there is a major problem with transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the metal forming tool surface. The problem is known as galling; a sort of severe adhesive wear, which results in severe scratching of produced parts. In this thesis, the overall aim was to gain knowledge of the influence of tool steel microstructure on galling initiation under sliding conditions. It was discovered that material transfer and tool steel damage caused by sheet material flow creating wear-induced galling initiation sites occurred in the early stage of galling. The galling resistance was higher for tool steels with higher matrix hardness due to better resistance to tool steel damage. Initial friction and critical contact pressure to galling was influenced by the strength of the sheet material. Material transfer happened at low pressures and the friction value was high in a case of sheet materials with lower proof strength, possibly due to the sheet contact against the tool steel matrix resulting in high adhesion and quicker tool damage. It was demonstrated that, in addition to hardness of the tool steel matrix and sheet material proof strength, tool steel microstructural features like size, shape, distribution and height of hard phases are important parameters influencing galling. Tool steels comprising homogeneously distributed, small and high hard phases better prevented the contact between sheet material and the tool steel matrix. Thus, a metal to metal contact with high friction was more efficiently avoided, which resulted in better tool performance.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014. p. 42
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2014:35
Keywords
Galling, Microstructure, Material transfer, Tool steel, Stainless steel, Metall transfer
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-32113 (URN)978-91-7063-568-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-08-29, Ljungbergsalen, 21A 244, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-06-17 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043164811002481

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Karlsson, PatrikGåård, AndersKrakhmalev, PavelBergström, Jens

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