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Impact of Multi-path Routing on TCP Performance
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. (Datavetenskap)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4366-6625
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. (Datavetenskap)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8731-2482
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. (Datavetenskap)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7311-9334
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. (Datavetenskap)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9446-8143
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2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2012), Washington, DC: IEEE Press, 2012, p. 1-3Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Routing packets over multiple disjoint paths towards a destination can increase network utilization by load-balancing the traffic over the network. The drawback of load-balancing is that different paths might have different delay properties, causing packets to be reordered. This can reduce TCP performance significantly, as reordering is interpreted as a sign of congestion. Packet reordering can be avoided by letting the network layer route strictly on flow-level. This will, however, also limit the ability to achieve optimal network throughput. There are also several proposals that try to mitigate the effects of reordering at the transport layer. In this paper, we perform an initial evaluation of such TCP reordering mitigations in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks when using multi-path routing. We evaluate two TCP reordering mitigation techniques implemented in the Linux kernel. The transport layer mitigations are compared using different multi-path routing strategies. Our findings show that, in general, flow-level routing gives the best TCP performance and that transport layer reordering mitigations only marginally can improve performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: IEEE Press, 2012. p. 1-3
Keywords [en]
TCP, reordering, wireless mesh networks, multi-channel, multi-radio, multi-path
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-13633DOI: 10.1109/WoWMoM.2012.6263723ISBN: 978-1-4673-1238-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-13633DiVA, id: diva2:533373
Conference
The 13th IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2012), June 2012, San Francisco, USA
Available from: 2012-06-13 Created: 2012-06-13 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transport-Layer Performance for Applications and Technologies of the Future Internet
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To provide Internet applications with good performance, the transport protocol TCP is designed to optimize the throughput of data transfers. Today, however, more and more applications rely on low latency rather than throughput. Such applications can be referred to as data-limited and are not appropriately supported by TCP. Another emerging problem is associated with the use of novel networking techniques that provide infrastructure-less networking. To improve connectivity and performance in such environments, multi-path routing is often used. This form of routing can cause packets to be reordered, which in turn hurts TCP performance.

To address timeliness issues for data-limited traffic, we propose and experimentally evaluate several transport protocol adaptations. For instance, we adapt the loss recovery mechanisms of both TCP and SCTP to perform faster loss detection for data-limited traffic, while preserving the standard behavior for regular traffic. Evaluations show that the proposed mechanisms are able to reduce loss recovery latency with 30-50%. We also suggest modifications to the TCP state caching mechanisms. The caching mechanisms are used to optimize new TCP connections based on the state of old ones, but do not work properly for data-limited flows. Additionally, we design a SCTP mechanism that reduces overhead by bundling several packets into one packet in a more timely fashion than the bundling normally used in SCTP.

To address the problem of packet reordering we perform several experimental evaluations, using TCP and state of the art reordering mitigation techniques. Although the studied mitigation techniques are quite good in helping TCP to sustain its performance during pure packet reordering events, they do not help when other impairments like packet loss are present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. p. 30
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2011:65
Keywords
TCP, SCTP, transport protocols, loss recovery, packet reordering, congestion control, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8920 (URN)978-91-7063-404-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-09, 1B364 (Frödingsalen), Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper V was in manuscript form at the time of the defense.

Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2016-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?reload=true&arnumber=6263723http://wowmom2012.it.uc3m.es/

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Karlsson, JonasHurtig, PerBrunstrom, AnnaKassler, Andreas

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