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Vertical phase separation in spin-coated films of a low bandgap polyfluorene/PCBM blend: Effects of specific substrate interaction
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. (Materialfysik)
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. (Materialfysik)
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Poland.
Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
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2007 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 8, p. 3906-3912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the effect of the substrate on the vertical phase separation in spin-coated thin films of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole] (APFO-3) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Compositional depth profiles of the films are measured by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).We found that changing the substrate from silicon to gold affects the composition profile near the substrate interface. This is caused by a specific interaction between the polymer (APFO-3) and the gold surface, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The composition profile in the area away from the substrate interface, as well as the enrichment of the free surface with APFO-3, remain however unaffected by the choice of substrate. The vertical composition was also analysed for APFO-3:PCBM films spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated with a thin layer of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007. Vol. 253, no 8, p. 3906-3912
Keywords [en]
Conjugated polymer; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS); Spinodal decomposition; Adsorption; Thiophene
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-1936DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.08.024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-1936DiVA, id: diva2:5082
Available from: 2007-11-20 Created: 2007-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Thin films of polyfluorene:fullerene blends - Morphology and its role in solar cell performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thin films of polyfluorene:fullerene blends - Morphology and its role in solar cell performance
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The sun provides us daily with large quantities of energy in the form of light. With the world’s increasing demand of electrical energy the prospect of converting this solar light into electricity is highly tempting. In the strive towards mass-production and low cost solar cells, new types of solar cells are being developed, e.g. solar cells completely based on organic molecules and polymers. These materials offer a promising potential of low cost and large scale manufacturing and have the additional advantage that they can be produced on flexible and light weight substrate which opens for new and innovating application areas, e.g. integration with paper or textiles, or as building materials. In polymer solar cells a combination of two materials are used, an electron donor and an electron acceptor. The three dimensional distribution of the donor and acceptor in the active layer of the device, i.e. the morphology, is known to have larger influence of the solar cell performance. For the optimal morphology there is a trade-off between sometimes conflicting criteria for the various steps of the energy conversion process. The dissociation of photogenerated excitons takes place at an interface between the donor and acceptor materials. Therefore an efficient generation of charges requires a large interface between the two components. However, for charge transport and collection at the electrodes, continuous pathways for the charges to the electrodes are required.

In this thesis, results from morphology studies by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of spin-coated blend and bilayer thin films of polyfluorene co-polymers, especially poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-(4´,7´-di-2-thienyl-2´,1´,3´-benzothiadiazole)] APFO-3, and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are presented. It is shown that by varying the blend ratio, the spin.-coating solvent, and/or the substrate, different morphologies can be obtained, e.g. diffuse bilayer structures, spontaneously formed multilayer structures and homogeneous blends. The connection between these different morphologies and the performance of solar cells is also analysed. The results indicate that nano-scale engineering of the morphology in the active layer may be an important factor in the optimization of the performance of polymer solar cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, 2007
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2007:43
Keywords
Polymer Solar Cells, Polymer Blends, Morphology, Polyfluorene, PCBM, AFM, SIMS, Spin-Coating, Surface Directed Spinodal Decomposition
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-1243 (URN)978-91-7063-147-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-07, 1B 364 (Frödingsalen), Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-20 Created: 2007-11-20

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Magnusson, KjellMoons, Ellen

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