Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
A possible path to progress: Out-of-school English English language learners in Sweden
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0511-4624
2011 (English)In: Beyond the language classroom / [ed] Phil Benson and Hayo Reinders, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan , 2011, p. 106-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present chapter is to present the results of a longitudinal study on the effects of extramural English (EE) on oral proficiency (OP) and vocabulary among Swedish learners of English (N=80, aged 15-16). EE is defined as linguistic activities that learners do or are involved in outside the classroom in their spare time; it was measured with the help of a questionnaire and two language diaries which included seven predetermined EE activities (reading books, reading newspapers/magazines, watching TV, watching films, surfing the Internet, playing video games, listening to music) and a final open category. The time spent on each activity as well as the total time of EE was determined in order to show whether some activities can be considered more important than others for OP and vocabulary. With the help of statistical analyses, it was possible to determine that the two reading activities were of highest relative importance for OP, whereas playing video games and surfing the Internet were important for vocabulary. Correlations between EE and OP/vocabulary were statistically significant. This evidence-based argument for the value of out-of-class learning is supported by qualitative data from learner interviews and studies of learners use of infrequent vocabulary in speech. Speech samples from learners with varying EE habits and levels of OP are presented. Significant gender differences are also discussed. Finally, the results show that whereas OP clearly correlated with socio-economic and motivational factors, this was not the case for amount and type of EE. Thus, EE was valuable in its own right. Learner autonomy theory (Holec, 1981) and the interaction approach (Gass & Mackey, 2006) serve as the theoretical framework. A mixed methods research design was adopted where both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in a separate and parallel manner. The results were integrated in the interpretation phase.The main finding of the chapter is that learners who spend time on EE, in particular if they devote time to reading, video games, and the Internet, seem to improve their English by doing so.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan , 2011. p. 106-118
Keywords [en]
extramural English, second language acquisition, out-of-school learning, oral proficiency, vocabulary, background variables, motivation, Educational Work, Subject Didactics, Other research relevant to Teachers Education
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
English
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-11206ISBN: 9780230272439 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-11206DiVA, id: diva2:494777
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2014-09-04Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Authority records BETA

Sundqvist, Pia

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Sundqvist, Pia
By organisation
Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and LiteratureDepartment of Languages
Languages and Literature

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 343 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf