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Performance of QUIC congestion control algorithms in 5G networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8947-0399
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4147-9487
Ericsson AB.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0722-2656
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8731-2482
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2022 Workshop on 5G and Beyond Network Measurements, Modeling, and Use Cases - Part of SIGCOMM 2022, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, p. 15-21Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The deployment of the next generation of cellular networks (5G) is expanding to enable new services and improve the quality of existing ones. Despite the benefits of 5G networks, they also present new challenges for the performance of classical and recently-proposed congestion control algorithms (CCAs), e.g., Bottleneck bandwidth and round-trip propagation time (BBR) and Copa. Despite their successful adoption in the Internet, BBR has been shown to overestimate the bottleneck bandwidth in cellular networks, and Copa has not been independently tested on a similar scale and detail as BBR in cellular networks. In this work, we compare the performance of these fairly recent CCAs as well as the widely deployed CUBIC CCA, and a modification to BBR for cellular networks (RBBR) at 5G rates. The evaluation is performed using the emerging QUIC protocol and uses both emulations and live experiments. Our results show that in 5G networks, CUBIC, BBR, and Copa suffer from significant bufferbloat, longer packet delays, and lower throughput, respectively. We also observe that in cases where the bottleneck is largely in the 5G link, RBBR can offer a significant delay reduction compared to BBR and CUBIC. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022. p. 15-21
Keywords [en]
Bandwidth, Queueing networks, Traffic congestion, Wireless networks, 5g, BBR, Bottleneck bandwidth, Cellular network, Congestion control, Congestion control algorithm, Copa, CUBIC, Performance, QUIC, 5G mobile communication systems
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-92184DOI: 10.1145/3538394.3546040Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85138238036OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-92184DiVA, id: diva2:1703251
Conference
SIGCOMM '22: ACM SIGCOMM 2022 Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 22, 2022.
Available from: 2022-10-12 Created: 2022-10-12 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Achieving Low Latency and High Throughput over Cellular Internet Connections
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving Low Latency and High Throughput over Cellular Internet Connections
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The continuous increase in the number and type of Internet services and their requirements for improved QoS has motivated the steady evolution  of cellular networks towards the current fifth generation (5G) systems. However, updating the network to 5G is insufficient to satisfy application requirements since performance limitations can also exist in the transport used by the applications. Legacy transport protocols and congestion control algorithms (CCAs) are not suitable for applications with requirements for both throughput and delay. This mismatch has inspired new transport protocols and CCAs, such as QUIC and BBR. Nevertheless, cellular networks present challenges that can make it difficult for newly proposed CCAs to achieve consistent throughput and delay.       

The main focus of this thesis is enhancing transport protocols and CCAs to achieve lower delay and high throughput in cellular networks. An extensive review of available end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks is provided in this thesis, along with the challenges and future directions for research. The delivery rate at a receiver is an important quantity that has found increased use in modern CCAs, and in this thesis, we propose and validate a Kalman-filter-based technique to obtain a steady estimate of the delivery rate for a cellular bottleneck. This thesis also proposes an extension to the QUIC protocol to make receiver-side delivery rate estimates available to the sender CCAs. Using the proposed rate estimation method and extension to the QUIC protocol, this thesis proposes modifications to the recently proposed CCAs BBR and Copa. The proposed modifications are evaluated over real cellular networks and through extensive trace-based emulations. The modified BBR results in lower packet delays with similar throughput to standard BBR in cellular bottlenecks. On the other hand, the modification to Copa strives to provide a more consistent and predictable delay performance across different cellular bottlenecks. 

Abstract [en]

The continuous increase in the number and type of Internet services and their requirements for improved QoS has driven the evolution of cellular networks towards the fifth-generation (5G) systems. However, updating the network to 5G is insufficient to satisfy application requirements since legacy transport protocols and congestion control algorithms (CCAs) are not suitable for applications with requirements for both throughput and delay.  

In this thesis, we aim to enhance transport protocols and CCAs to achieve low delay and high throughput in cellular networks. We provide an extensive review of contemporary end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks, along with the challenges in designing suitable CCAs and future directions for research. We also propose a technique to obtain a steady estimate of the delivery rate for a cellular bottleneck and an extension to one of the major transport protocols of the Internet (QUIC). The proposed extension makes receiver-side delivery rate estimates available to the sender CCAs.  

Using the proposed rate estimation method and extension to the QUIC protocol, we propose modifications to two prominent modern CCAs, i.e. BBR and Copa. Through extensive evaluation, this thesis shows that the modified BBR results in lower packet delays, and the modification to Copa provides a more consistent and predictable delay performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2023. p. 45
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2023:11
Keywords
QUIC, BBR, Copa, TCP, Congestion control, Throughput, Queuing Delay, Performance Evaluation, 4G, 5G, Kalman Filter
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-94024 (URN)978-91-7867-364-3 (ISBN)978-91-7867-365-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-05-29, 1B306, Fryxellsalen, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-03-28 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Haile, Habtegebreil KassayeGrinnemo, Karl-JohanFerlin, SimoneHurtig, PerBrunstrom, Anna

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