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RBBR: A Receiver-driven BBR in QUIC for Low-latency in Cellular Networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed Communications and Systems (DISCO))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8947-0399
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed Systems and Communications Research Group (DISCO))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4147-9487
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed Systems and Communications Research Group (DISCO))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8731-2482
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed Systems and Communications Research Group (DISCO))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7311-9334
2022 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 18707-18719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BBR is a promising new congestion control algorithm (CCA) that has been shown to result in significantly lower latency compared to conventional loss-based CCAs. However, in cellular networks, where there is a high variability in the available rate, BBR does not perform as well as expected. In such scenarios, BBR tends to overestimate the available capacity and create queues that cause longer packet delays. In this work, we propose Receiver-driven BBR (RBBR), a modified version of BBR that uses rate estimates made at the receiver side rather than at the sender side. We employ a Kalman filter to make a more accurate estimate of the available bandwidth, and we implement the algorithm in QUIC. An evaluation of the proposed CCA is done through extensive 4G trace-based emulations, real 4G network tests and mmWave trace-based emulations representing a 5G scenario. The results show that RBBR is able to achieve an RTT reduction of up to 80\% with a worst-case throughput loss of about 30\%. The results also show that in real 4G networks, RBBR flows experience a more predictable and consistent RTT than what BBR flows do.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022. Vol. 10, p. 18707-18719
Keywords [en]
4G, 5G, BBR, congestion control, Kalman filer, QUIC, RTT, throughput
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-88378DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3148998ISI: 000760731600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85124204137OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-88378DiVA, id: diva2:1635119
Available from: 2022-02-04 Created: 2022-02-04 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Achieving Low Latency and High Throughput over Cellular Internet Connections
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving Low Latency and High Throughput over Cellular Internet Connections
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The continuous increase in the number and type of Internet services and their requirements for improved QoS has motivated the steady evolution  of cellular networks towards the current fifth generation (5G) systems. However, updating the network to 5G is insufficient to satisfy application requirements since performance limitations can also exist in the transport used by the applications. Legacy transport protocols and congestion control algorithms (CCAs) are not suitable for applications with requirements for both throughput and delay. This mismatch has inspired new transport protocols and CCAs, such as QUIC and BBR. Nevertheless, cellular networks present challenges that can make it difficult for newly proposed CCAs to achieve consistent throughput and delay.       

The main focus of this thesis is enhancing transport protocols and CCAs to achieve lower delay and high throughput in cellular networks. An extensive review of available end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks is provided in this thesis, along with the challenges and future directions for research. The delivery rate at a receiver is an important quantity that has found increased use in modern CCAs, and in this thesis, we propose and validate a Kalman-filter-based technique to obtain a steady estimate of the delivery rate for a cellular bottleneck. This thesis also proposes an extension to the QUIC protocol to make receiver-side delivery rate estimates available to the sender CCAs. Using the proposed rate estimation method and extension to the QUIC protocol, this thesis proposes modifications to the recently proposed CCAs BBR and Copa. The proposed modifications are evaluated over real cellular networks and through extensive trace-based emulations. The modified BBR results in lower packet delays with similar throughput to standard BBR in cellular bottlenecks. On the other hand, the modification to Copa strives to provide a more consistent and predictable delay performance across different cellular bottlenecks. 

Abstract [en]

The continuous increase in the number and type of Internet services and their requirements for improved QoS has driven the evolution of cellular networks towards the fifth-generation (5G) systems. However, updating the network to 5G is insufficient to satisfy application requirements since legacy transport protocols and congestion control algorithms (CCAs) are not suitable for applications with requirements for both throughput and delay.  

In this thesis, we aim to enhance transport protocols and CCAs to achieve low delay and high throughput in cellular networks. We provide an extensive review of contemporary end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks, along with the challenges in designing suitable CCAs and future directions for research. We also propose a technique to obtain a steady estimate of the delivery rate for a cellular bottleneck and an extension to one of the major transport protocols of the Internet (QUIC). The proposed extension makes receiver-side delivery rate estimates available to the sender CCAs.  

Using the proposed rate estimation method and extension to the QUIC protocol, we propose modifications to two prominent modern CCAs, i.e. BBR and Copa. Through extensive evaluation, this thesis shows that the modified BBR results in lower packet delays, and the modification to Copa provides a more consistent and predictable delay performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2023. p. 45
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2023:11
Keywords
QUIC, BBR, Copa, TCP, Congestion control, Throughput, Queuing Delay, Performance Evaluation, 4G, 5G, Kalman Filter
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-94024 (URN)978-91-7867-364-3 (ISBN)978-91-7867-365-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-05-29, 1B306, Fryxellsalen, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-03-28 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Haile, Habtegebreil KassayeGrinnemo, Karl-JohanHurtig, PerBrunström, Anna

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