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End-to-end congestion control approaches for high throughput and low delay in 4G/5G cellular networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed Systems and Communications Research Group (DISCO))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8947-0399
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed Systems and Communications Research Group (DISCO))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4147-9487
Ericsson AB.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0722-2656
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed Systems and Communications Research Group (DISCO))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8731-2482
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2021 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 186, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellular networks have evolved to support high peak bitrates with low loss rates as observed by the higherlayers. However, applications and services running over cellular networks are now facing other difficult congestion-related challenges, most notably a highly variable link capacity and bufferbloat. To overcome theseissues and improve performance of network traffic in 4G/5G cellular networks, a number of in-network and end-to-end solutions have been proposed. Fairness between interacting congestion control algorithms (CCAs) has played an important role in the type of CCAs considered for research and deployment. The placement of content closer to the user and the allocation of per-user queues in cellular networks has increased the likelihood of a cellular access bottleneck and reduced the extent of flow interaction between multiple users. This has resulted in renewed interest in end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks by opening up room for researchand exploration. In this work, we present end-to-end CCAs that target a high throughput and a low latency over highly variable network links, and classify them according to the way they address the congestion control. The work also discusses the deployability of the algorithms. In addition, we provide insights into possible future research directions, such as coping with a higher degree of variability, interaction of CCAs in as hared bottleneck, and avenues for synergized research, such as CCAs assisted by software defined networking and network function virtualization. We hope that this work will serve as a starting point for systematically navigating through the expanding number of cellular CCAs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021. Vol. 186, p. 1-22
Keywords [en]
TCP, QUIC, Wireless, Mobile, 4G, 5G, Congestion control, Survey
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-82281DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2020.107692ISI: 000694954000008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85098985052OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-82281DiVA, id: diva2:1514537
Projects
5th Generation End-to-end Network, Experimentation, System Integration, and Showcasing (5GENESIS)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 815178Available from: 2021-01-06 Created: 2021-01-06 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Achieving Low Latency and High Throughput over Cellular Internet Connections
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving Low Latency and High Throughput over Cellular Internet Connections
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The continuous increase in the number and type of Internet services and their requirements for improved QoS has motivated the steady evolution  of cellular networks towards the current fifth generation (5G) systems. However, updating the network to 5G is insufficient to satisfy application requirements since performance limitations can also exist in the transport used by the applications. Legacy transport protocols and congestion control algorithms (CCAs) are not suitable for applications with requirements for both throughput and delay. This mismatch has inspired new transport protocols and CCAs, such as QUIC and BBR. Nevertheless, cellular networks present challenges that can make it difficult for newly proposed CCAs to achieve consistent throughput and delay.       

The main focus of this thesis is enhancing transport protocols and CCAs to achieve lower delay and high throughput in cellular networks. An extensive review of available end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks is provided in this thesis, along with the challenges and future directions for research. The delivery rate at a receiver is an important quantity that has found increased use in modern CCAs, and in this thesis, we propose and validate a Kalman-filter-based technique to obtain a steady estimate of the delivery rate for a cellular bottleneck. This thesis also proposes an extension to the QUIC protocol to make receiver-side delivery rate estimates available to the sender CCAs. Using the proposed rate estimation method and extension to the QUIC protocol, this thesis proposes modifications to the recently proposed CCAs BBR and Copa. The proposed modifications are evaluated over real cellular networks and through extensive trace-based emulations. The modified BBR results in lower packet delays with similar throughput to standard BBR in cellular bottlenecks. On the other hand, the modification to Copa strives to provide a more consistent and predictable delay performance across different cellular bottlenecks. 

Abstract [en]

The continuous increase in the number and type of Internet services and their requirements for improved QoS has driven the evolution of cellular networks towards the fifth-generation (5G) systems. However, updating the network to 5G is insufficient to satisfy application requirements since legacy transport protocols and congestion control algorithms (CCAs) are not suitable for applications with requirements for both throughput and delay.  

In this thesis, we aim to enhance transport protocols and CCAs to achieve low delay and high throughput in cellular networks. We provide an extensive review of contemporary end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks, along with the challenges in designing suitable CCAs and future directions for research. We also propose a technique to obtain a steady estimate of the delivery rate for a cellular bottleneck and an extension to one of the major transport protocols of the Internet (QUIC). The proposed extension makes receiver-side delivery rate estimates available to the sender CCAs.  

Using the proposed rate estimation method and extension to the QUIC protocol, we propose modifications to two prominent modern CCAs, i.e. BBR and Copa. Through extensive evaluation, this thesis shows that the modified BBR results in lower packet delays, and the modification to Copa provides a more consistent and predictable delay performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2023. p. 45
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2023:11
Keywords
QUIC, BBR, Copa, TCP, Congestion control, Throughput, Queuing Delay, Performance Evaluation, 4G, 5G, Kalman Filter
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-94024 (URN)978-91-7867-364-3 (ISBN)978-91-7867-365-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-05-29, 1B306, Fryxellsalen, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-03-28 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Haile, Habtegebreil KassayeGrinnemo, Karl-JohanHurtig, PerBrunström, Anna

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