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Towards Resilient and Reconfigurable Software-defined Wireless Backhaul Networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4961-5087
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increase of mobile devices and services over the last decade has led to unprecedented mobile traffic growth. To cope with the increasing demands, fifth generation (5G) network architectures have been designed to provide the required capacity using a large number of small cells (SCs). However, a dense deployment of SCs requires a robust and scalable backhaul to transport the access traffic towards the Internet. In this thesis, we explore the application of the Software-defined Networking (SDN) paradigm for the management of a wireless backhaul. With SDN, the data and control planes are separated and the network is managed by a centralized entity. To that end, we provide multiple contributions that focus on achieving resilient and reconfigurable wireless backhaul networks. Firstly, we propose an SDN-based architecture to manage the wireless backhaul. Our architecture is integrated in practical testbed environments, where we use an SDN controller to configure the forwarding plane and wireless backhaul links. Secondly, we evaluate SDN-based resiliency in the wireless backhaul. We achieve that by implementing fast-failover resiliency with OpenFlow group tables and by using the bidirectional-forwarding detection protocol (BFD) to monitor the state of the backhaul links. Finally, we develop algorithms that calculate the necessary reconfiguration operations to transition between different wireless backhaul topologies, while minimizing the impact on existing user traffic. We consider that the backhaul nodes can be powered on/off and are equipped with steerable antennas that can be aligned to form links with different neighbors. Our optimization problems are modeled as mixed integer linear programs (MILP) that are optimally solved using exact mathematical programming methods. In addition, we develop greedy-based heuristic algorithms that solve the same problems and obtain good quality solutions in short time.

Abstract [en]

The increase of mobile devices and services over the last decade has led to unprecedented mobile traffic growth. To cope with the increasing demands, fifth generation (5G) network architectures have been designed to provide the required capacity using a large number of small cells (SCs). However, a dense deployment of SCs requires a robust and scalable backhaul to transport the access traffic towards the Internet.

In this thesis, we explore the application of the Software-defined Networking (SDN) paradigm for the management of a wireless backhaul. To that end, we provide multiple contributions that focus on achieving resilient and reconfigurable wireless backhaul networks. Firstly, we propose an SDN-based architecture to manage the wireless backhaul. Our architecture is integrated in practical testbed environments, where we use an SDN controller to configure the forwarding plane and wireless backhaul links. Secondly, we evaluate SDN-based fast-failover resiliency in the wireless backhaul. Finally, we develop several algorithms that orchestrate different backhaul reconfiguration operations with minimal impact on existing user traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2020. , p. 42
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2020:9
Keywords [en]
5G, heterogeneous networks, mmWave, resiliency, SDN, wireless backhaul
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76286ISBN: 978-91-7867-092-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7867-102-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-76286DiVA, id: diva2:1385116
Public defence
2020-03-06, 21A342, Karlstad, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-02-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A SDN Controller Architecture for Small Cell Wireless Backhaul using a LTE Control Channel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A SDN Controller Architecture for Small Cell Wireless Backhaul using a LTE Control Channel
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE WoWMoM, IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41735 (URN)10.1109/WoWMoM.2016.7523544 (DOI)000392273900049 ()978-1-5090-2185-7 (ISBN)
Conference
WoWMoM 2016 - IEEE 17th International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, June 21-24 2016, Coimbra, Portugal
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, SOCRA
Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-20 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
2. Small Cell Wireless Backhaul Reconfiguration Using Software-Defined Networking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small Cell Wireless Backhaul Reconfiguration Using Software-Defined Networking
2017 (English)In: Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2017 IEEE, IEEE, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to increase the capacity of next generation mobile networks, network densification is a key aspect to provide better coverage and increased data rates to end users. Network operators are thinking to deploy wireless backhaul solutions to cut down cabling costs for connecting the small cell nodes. Consequently, the next generation mobile network architecture may contain a massive amount of small cells that are connected through wireless backhaul links, forming mesh or tree structures towards the core network, under the umbrella coverage of eNodeB type macro cells. In this paper, we use a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based architecture for the operation and management of such small cell backhaul networks. By extending OpenFlow, the SDN controller is able to reconfigure not only the routing, but also the wireless backhaul configuration, such as channel assignment to backhaul links. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by using testbed measurements and show that, when using our SDN-based reconfiguration, the network downtime for existing traffic due to channel re-assignment is significantly reduced, when comparing to a distributed routing based approach. Moreover, by using SDN based fast-failover techniques, we can instantaneously redirect traffic to other neighbors when links fail or neighbors are powered down, without the need for controller interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference : Proceedings, E-ISSN 1558-2612
Keywords
SDN, wireless backhaul, small cell networks, 5G
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-64532 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2017.7925943 (DOI)000403137600460 ()978-1-5090-4184-8 (ISBN)978-1-5090-4183-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2017 IEEE, 19-22 March 2017, San Francisco, CA, USA
Projects
SOCRA
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 4840
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. Turning the knobs on OpenFlow-based resiliency in mmWave small cell meshed networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turning the knobs on OpenFlow-based resiliency in mmWave small cell meshed networks
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2017 IEEE: 5G Testbed, IEEE, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a solution to cope with the increase of wireless network traffic for future 5G networks, the IEEE 802.11ad standard enables multi-gigabit connectivity within the 60 GHz spectrum. Since these networks typically have low range, a vast number of small cells is required to form a wireless backhaul that can be easily affected by temporary failures due to blockage/interference. Software-defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm that allows the centralization of the control plane management, which can be applied to mmWave wireless backhaul networks. Using SDN enables the possibility of having resilience mechanisms in the network, such as Fast-Failover (FF) group tables in the OpenFlow (OF) protocol. In this paper, we analyse resilient forwarding configurations upon temporary link failures. We perform our evaluation on a 4 small cell testbed with multiple IEEE 802.11ad interfaces, showing how OF-based resiliency can be applied, through FF and the Bidirectional-Forwarding Detection (BFD) protocol. Our results show how BFD can be tuned to improve the link state monitoring, and how a local reactive failover mechanism can benefit ongoing traffic in small cell meshed backhaul networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
National Category
Telecommunications Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65584 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOMW.2017.8269214 (DOI)000426984700183 ()978-1-5386-3920-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE GLOBECOM 2017, Int. Workshop on 5G Test-Beds and Trials - Learnings from implementing 5G, 4-8 dec. 2017 Singapore.
Projects
SOCRA (4840)
Available from: 2018-01-23 Created: 2018-01-23 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. mmWave Backhaul Testbed Configurability Using Software-Defined Networking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>mmWave Backhaul Testbed Configurability Using Software-Defined Networking
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, p. 1-24, article id 8342167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Future mobile data traffic predictions expect a significant increase in user data traffic, requiring new forms of mobile network infrastructures. Fifth generation (5G) communication standards propose the densification of small cell access base stations (BSs) in order to provide multigigabit and low latency connectivity. This densification requires a high capacity backhaul network. Using optical links to connect all the small cells is economically not feasible for large scale radio access networks where multiple BSs are deployed. A wireless backhaul formed by a mesh of millimeter-wave (mmWave) links is an attractive mobile backhaul solution, as flexible wireless (multihop) paths can be formed to interconnect all the access BSs. Moreover, a wireless backhaul allows the dynamic reconfiguration of the backhaul topology to match varying traffic demands or adaptively power on/off small cells for green backhaul operation. However, conducting and precisely controlling reconfiguration experiments over real mmWave multihop networks is a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based approach to enable such a dynamic backhaul reconfiguration and use real-world mmWave equipment to setup a SDN-enabled mmWave testbed to conduct various reconfiguration experiments. In our approach, the SDN control plane is not only responsible for configuring the forwarding plane but also for the link configuration, antenna alignment, and adaptive mesh node power on/off operations. We implement the SDN-based reconfiguration operations in a testbed with four nodes, each equipped with multiple mmWave interfaces that can be mechanically steered to connect to different neighbors. We evaluate the impact of various reconfiguration operations on existing user traffic using a set of extensive testbed measurements. Moreover, we measure the impact of the channel assignment on existing traffic, showing that a setup with an optimal channel assignment between the mesh links can result in a 44% throughput increase, when compared to a suboptimal configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2019
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71786 (URN)10.1155/2019/8342167 (DOI)000465345700001 ()
Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
5. Optimal Steerable mmWave Mesh Backhaul Reconfiguration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Steerable mmWave Mesh Backhaul Reconfiguration
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM), IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future 5G mobile networks will require increased backhaul (BH) capacity to connect a massive amount of high capacity small cells (SCs) to the network. Because having an optical connection to each SC might be infeasible, mmWave-based (e.g. 60 GHz) BH links are an interesting alternative due to their large available bandwidth. To cope with the increased path loss, mmWave links require directional antennas that should be able to direct their beams to different neighbors, to dynamically change the BH topology, in case new nodes are powered on/off or the traffic demand has changed. Such BH adaptation needs to be orchestrated to minimize the impact on existing traffic.This paper develops a Software-defined networking-based framework that guides the optimal reconfiguration of mesh BH networks composed by mmWave links, where antennas need to be mechanically aligned.By modelling the problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), its solution returns the optimal ordering of events necessary to transition between two BH network configurations. The model creates backup paths whenever it is possible, while minimizing the packet loss of ongoing flows. A numerical evaluation with different topologies and traffic demands shows that increasing the number of BH interfaces per SC from 2 to 4 can decrease the total loss by more than 50%. Moreover, when increasing the total reconfiguration time, additional backup paths can be created, consequently reducing the reconfiguration impact on existing traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), ISSN 2334-0983, E-ISSN 2576-6813
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69436 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2018.8647747 (DOI)000465774303123 ()978-1-5386-4727-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM)
Projects
Socra, 4840
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
6. Fast Steerable Wireless Backhaul Reconfiguration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast Steerable Wireless Backhaul Reconfiguration
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76278 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
7. Towards the Optimal Orchestration of Steerable mmWave Backhaul Reconfiguration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards the Optimal Orchestration of Steerable mmWave Backhaul Reconfiguration
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76279 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved

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