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Service Migration in Virtualized Data Centers
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (Distributed systems and communication, DISCO)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9866-8209
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern virtualized Data Centers (DCs) require efficient management techniques to guarantee high quality services while reducing their economical cost. The ability to live migrate virtual instances, e.g., Virtual Machines (VMs), both inside and among DCs is a key operation for the majority of DC management tasks that brings significant flexibility into the DC infrastructure. However, live migration introduces new challenges as it ought to be fast and seamless while at the same time imposing a minimum overhead on the network. In this thesis, we study the networking problems of live service migration in modern DCs when services are deployed in virtualized environments, e.g., VMs and containers. In particular, this thesis has the following main objectives: (1) improving the live VM migration in Software-Defined Network (SDN) enabled DCs by addressing networking challenges of live VM migration, and (2) investigating the trade-off between the reconfiguration cost and optimality of the Service Function Chains (SFCs) placement after the reconfiguration has been applied when SFCs are composed of stateful Virtual Network Functions (VNFs).

To achieve the first objective, in this thesis, we use distinctive characteristics of SDN architectures such as their centralized control over the network to accelerate the network convergence time and address suboptimal routing problem. Consequently, we enhance the quality of intra- and inter-DC live migrations. Furthermore, we develop an SDN-based framework to improve the inter-DC live VM migration by automating the deployment, improving the management, enhancing the performance, and increasing the scalability of interconnections among DCs.

To accomplish the second objective, we investigate the overhead of dynamic reconfiguration of stateful VNFs. Dynamic reconfiguration of VNFs is frequently required in various circumstances, and live migration of VNFs is an integral part of this operation. By mathematically formulating the reconfiguration costs of stateful VNFs and developing a multi-objective heuristic solution, we explore the trade-off between the reconfiguration cost required to improve a given placement and the degree of optimality achieved after the reconfiguration is performed. Results show that the cost of performing the reconfiguration operations required to realize an optimal VNF placement might hamper the gain that could be achieved.

Abstract [en]

Modern virtualized Data Centers (DCs) require efficient management techniques to guarantee high quality services while reducing their economical cost. The ability to live migrate virtual instances, e.g., Virtual Machines (VMs), both inside and among DCs, is a key operation for the majority of DC management tasks that brings significant flexibility into the DC infrastructure. However, live migration introduces new challenges as it ought to be fast and seamless while at the same time imposing a minimum overhead on the network.

This thesis investigates the networking challenges of short and long-haul live VM migration in Software Defined Networking (SDN) enabled DCs. We propose solutions to make the intra- and inter-DC live VM migration more seamless. Our proposed SDN-based framework for inter-DC migration improves the management, enhances the performance, and increases the scalability of interconnections among DCs.

Moreover, by considering the overhead of VM migration over the network, servers, and quality of service the VM provides, we explore the trade-off between the costs required to change the placement of VMs and the optimality degree of the placement in the DC. Results show that the cost of improving the placement might hamper the gain that could be achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2020. , p. 49
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2020:1
Keywords [en]
Data Center, Ethernet VPN, EVPN, Live Service Migration, Reconfiguration, SDN, Virtual Network Function, VNF
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75921ISBN: 978-91-7867-073-4 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7867-083-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-75921DiVA, id: diva2:1377493
Public defence
2020-02-07, 21A342 (Eva Eriksson lecture hall), Universitetsgatan 2, 651 88, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge FoundationAvailable from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Minimizing Live VM Migration Downtime Using OpenFlow based Resiliency Mechanisms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimizing Live VM Migration Downtime Using OpenFlow based Resiliency Mechanisms
2016 (English)In: Cloud Networking (Cloudnet), 2016 5th IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47744 (URN)10.1109/CloudNet.2016.17 (DOI)000391421700005 ()
Conference
IEEE CloudNet 2016 - 5th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking, Pisa, Italy, 3-5 Oct. 2016
Projects
HITS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-01-26 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Automating Ethernet VPN deployment in SDN-based Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automating Ethernet VPN deployment in SDN-based Data Centers
Show others...
2017 (English)In: 2017 Fourth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS)., IEEE, 2017, p. 61-66Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (L2VPN) is widely deployed in both service provider networks and enterprises. However, legacy L2VPN solutions have scalability limitations in the context of Data Center (DC) interconnection and networking which require new approaches that address the requirements of service providers for virtual private cloud services. Recently, Ethernet VPN (EVPN) has been proposed to address many of those concerns and vendors started to deploy EVPN based solutions in DC edge routers. However, manual configuration leads to a time-consuming, error-prone configuration and high operational costs. Automating the EVPN deployment from cloud platforms such as OpenStack enhances both the deployment and flexibility of EVPN Instances (EVIs). This paper proposes a Software Defined Network (SDN) based framework that automates the EVPN deployment and management inside SDN-based DCs using OpenStack and OpenDaylight (ODL). We implemented and extended several modules inside ODL controller to manage and interact with EVIs and an interface to OpenStack that allows the deployment and configuration of EVIs. We conclude with scalability analysis of our solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
cloud computing, computer centres, local area networks, software defined networking, virtual private networks
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65144 (URN)10.1109/SDS.2017.7939142 (DOI)000405190400010 ()978-1-5386-2855-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Fourth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS) 2017. 8-11 May, 2017. Valencia, Spain.
Projects
HITS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Policy-based routing and load balancing for EVPN-based data center interconnections
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy-based routing and load balancing for EVPN-based data center interconnections
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2017 (English)In: Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN), 2017 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN), IEEE, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Ethernet VPN (EVPN) technology has emerged as a key solution for the interconnection of geo-distributed Data Centers (DCs) over provider-managed MPLS networks. Such interconnections need to satisfy service-level agreements, which can be achieved by enforcing Traffic Engineering (TE) policies. However, deploying an effective TE policy is challenging and complex. This stems from the fact that network administrators should have a detailed insight into the network status and protocol specifics. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) may facilitate both the policy definition and deployment based on its comprehensive network view and existing integration with DC management systems, such as OpenStack. This paper presents an SDN-based framework for policy-driven DC interconnections that are built around EVPN. The framework is designed to translate routing and other TE policies, which are defined for EVPN instances, into appropriate low-level network actions to meet the policy goals. A generic programming interface allows an SDN controller to load different TE strategies so as to implement the policy, without the need to hard-code it. Moreover, our evaluations illustrate how clients might benefit from specific TE strategies and what is their impact on network performance

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
Cloud Networking, Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN), Software-Defined Networking (SDN), Routing Policy Management, OpenStack, OpenDaylight
National Category
Computer Sciences Software Engineering Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65600 (URN)10.1109/NFV-SDN.2017.8169841 (DOI)000426936400019 ()978-1-5386-3285-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN), 6-8 Nov. 2017, Berlin, Germany
Projects
HITS, 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. SDN Enhanced Ethernet VPN for Data Center Interconnect
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SDN Enhanced Ethernet VPN for Data Center Interconnect
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet) / [ed] Maga, D, IEEE, 2017, p. 77-82Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) is an emerging technology that addresses the networking challenges presented by geo-distributed Data Centers (DCs). One of the major advantages of EVPN over legacy layer 2 VPN solutions is providing All-Active (A-A) mode of operation so that the traffic can truly be multi-homed on Provider Edge (PE) routers. However, A-A mode of operation introduces new challenges. In the case where the Customer Edge (CE) router is multi-homed to one or more PE routers, it is necessary that only one of the PE routers should forward Broadcast, Unknown unicast, and Multicast (BUM) traffic into the DC. The PE router that assumes the primary role for forwarding BUM traffic to the CE device is called the Designated Forwarder (DF). The proposed solution to select the DF in the EVPN standard is based on a distributed algorithm which has a number of drawbacks such as unfairness and intermittent behavior. In this paper, we introduce a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based architecture for EVPN support, where the SDN controller interacts with EVPN control plane. We demonstrate how our solution mitigates existing problems for DF selection which leads to improved EVPN performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking, ISSN 2374-3239
National Category
Computer Sciences Software Engineering Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66892 (URN)10.1109/CloudNet.2017.8071535 (DOI)000426957400013 ()978-1-5090-4026-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 6th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet), SEP 25-27, 2017, Prague, Czech republic
Projects
HITS, 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. EVPN/SDN Assisted Live VM Migration between Geo-Distributed Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EVPN/SDN Assisted Live VM Migration between Geo-Distributed Data Centers
2018 (English)In: 4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft), IEEE, 2018, p. 105-113Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Live Virtual Machine (VM) migration has significantly improved the flexibility of modern Data Centers (DC). However, seamless live migration of a VM between geo-distributed DCs faces several challenges due to difficulties in preserving the network configuration after the migration paired with a large network convergence time. Although SDN-based approaches can speed up network convergence time, these techniques have two limitations. First, they typically react to the new topology by installing new flow rules once the migration is finished. Second, because the WAN is typically not under SDN control, they result in sub-optimal routing thus severely degrading the network performance once the VM is attached at the new location.

In this paper, we identify networking challenges for VM migration across geo-distributed DCs. Based on those observations, we design a novel long-haul VM migration scheme that overcomes those limitations. First, instead of reactively restoring connectivity after the migration, our SDN-based approach proactively restores flows across the WAN towards the new location with the help of EVPN and VXLAN overlay technologies. Second, the SDN controller accelerates the network convergence by announcing the migration to other controllers using MP-BGP control plane messages. Finally, the SDN controller resolves the sub-optimal routing problem that arises as a result of migration implementing a distributed anycast gateway. We implement our approach as extensions to the OpenDaylight controller. Our evaluation shows that our approach outperforms existing approaches in reducing the downtime by 400 ms and increasing the application performance up to 12 times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Data Center, Ethernet VPN, Software Defined Networks, Distributed Gateway, VM Migration
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70164 (URN)10.1109/NETSOFT.2018.8459946 (DOI)000455125000012 ()978-1-5386-4633-5 (ISBN)
Conference
4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization and Workshops (NetSoft), Montreal, Canada, June 25-29, 2018.
Projects
HITS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. On the Cost-Optimality Trade-off for Service Function Chain Reconfiguration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Cost-Optimality Trade-off for Service Function Chain Reconfiguration
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Optimal placement of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) in virtualized data centers enhances the overall performance of Service Function Chains (SFCs) and decreases the operational costs for mobile network operators. Maintaining an optimal placement of VNFs under changing load requires a dynamic reconfiguration that includes adding or removing VNF instances, changing the resource allocation of VNFs, and re-routing corresponding service flows. However, such reconfiguration may lead to notable service disruptions and impose additional overhead on the VNF infrastructure, especially when reconfiguration entails state or VNF migration. On the other hand, not changing the existing placement may lead to high operational costs. In this paper, we investigate the trade-off between the reconfiguration of SFCs and the optimality of the resulting placement and service flow (re)routing. We model different reconfiguration costs related to the migration of stateful VNFs and solve a joint optimization problem that aims to minimize both the total cost of the VNF placement and the reconfiguration cost necessary for repairing a suboptimal placement. Numerical results show that a small number of reconfiguration operations can significantly reduce the operational cost of the VNF infrastructure; however, too much reconfiguration may not pay off should heavy costs be involved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Joint optimization problem, reconfiguration, virtual network function, VNF migration
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75574 (URN)
Conference
IEEE CloudNet 2019 - 8th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking, Coimbra, Portugal, 4-6 Nov. 2019
Projects
HITS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
7. On the Cost-Optimality Trade-off for Fast Service Function Chain Reconfiguration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Cost-Optimality Trade-off for Fast Service Function Chain Reconfiguration
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Optimal placement of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) in data centers enhances the overall performance of Service Function Chains (SFCs) and decreases the operational costs for mobile network operators. In order to cope with changes in demands, VNF instances may be added or removed dynamically, resource allocations may be adjusted, and servers may be consolidated. To maintain an optimal placement of SFC under changing conditions, dynamic reconfiguration is required including the migration of VNFs and the re-routing of service flows. However, such reconfiguration may lead to notable service disruptions and can be exacerbated when reconfiguration entails state or VNF migration, both imposing additional overhead on the VNF infrastructure. On the other hand, not changing the placement may lead to a suboptimal operation, servers and links may become congested or underutilized, leading to high operational costs. In this paper, we investigate the trade-off between the reconfiguration of SFCs and the optimality of the resulting placement and service flow routing. We model reconfiguration costs related to the migration of stateful VNFs and solve a joint optimization problem that aims to minimize both the total cost of the new placement and the reconfiguration cost necessary to achieve it. We also develop a fast multi-objective genetic algorithm that finds near-optimal solutions for online decisions. Our numerical evaluations show that a small number of reconfiguration operations can significantly reduce the operational cost of the VNF infrastructure. In contrast, too much reconfiguration may not pay off due to high costs. We believe that our work is an important tool that helps network provider to plan a good reconfiguration strategy for their service chains.

Keywords
Network reconfiguration, Virtual Network Function, VNF migration strategy
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75904 (URN)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
8. OpenStackEmu - A Cloud Testbed Combining Network Emulation with OpenStack and SDN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>OpenStackEmu - A Cloud Testbed Combining Network Emulation with OpenStack and SDN
2017 (English)In: Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), 2017 14th IEEE Annual, IEEE, 2017, p. 566-568Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

OpenStack has been widely acknowledged to be one of the most important open source cloud platforms. In order to perform experimentally driven research in the area of cloud and cloud networking, there is however a big gap, because most researchers do not have access to a large cloud deployment and cannot change networking or compute infrastructure in order to test their algorithms and protocols on a large-scale. We developed OpenStackEmu, which is to the best of our knowledge the first attempt that combines OpenStack infrastructure with a Software Defined Networking (SDN) based controller such as OpenDaylight and a large-scale network emulator CORE (Common Open Research Emulator). The OpenStack compute and control nodes are connected to the CORE emulation server using TUN/TAP interfaces that inject the control (e.g. for VM migration) and data (VM-to-VM traffic) packets into a customizable network topology that is emulated using configurable Open vSwitches using CORE emulator. Experimenters can define e.g. fat-tree or distributed data center topologies and study the behavior of real VMs and services in those VMs under different background loads and SDN routing policies. We integrated the data center traffic generator DCT2Gen that allows to generate realistic background traffic based on traces from real data centers. Experimenters can study the performance impact of different VM migration strategies or different routing and load balancing schemes on real VM and application performance using different emulated topologies. We believe that OpenStackEmu is an important tool for both the SDN and OpenStack community in order to evaluate the performance of novel algorithms and protocols in the area of cloud networking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, ISSN 2331-9852
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48478 (URN)10.1109/CCNC.2017.7983169 (DOI)000412117100118 ()978-1-5090-6196-9 (ISBN)
Conference
The 14th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), 8-11 Jan. 2017, Las Vegas, USA
Projects
HITS
Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-05-04 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Alizadeh Noghani, Kyoomars

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