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Do athletes have more of a cognitive profile with ADHD criteria than non-athletes?
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7453-5399
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, NOR.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4495-6819
2021 (English)In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study investigates the possibility that athletes have more parallel ADHD symptoms than non-athletes. High-level youth sport athletes were compared with non-athletes in leisure time (i.e., sport) and in the school in ADHD symptoms. Athletes and students were evaluated by a trained psychotherapist using Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) on activities at school and during activities in leisure/sports time. They also filled in the Autism Spectrum Questionnaire (AQ) as a self-report assessment. Results showed significant differences in ASRS-scores for athletes in school and in their sport, with high scores in school and low scores in sport. No differences were found in AQ between the groups. The findings indicate that many athletes might display a cognitive profile of parallel of ADHD criteria. Future research needs to further investigate potential benefits of the cognitive profile in athletes and how they handle different contexts including sport and school settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021. Vol. 9, no 5, article id 61
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71859DOI: 10.3390/sports9050061ISI: 000654546200001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85108162894OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-71859DiVA, id: diva2:1305540
Note

Artikeln ingick som manuskript i Ekmans (2019) doktorsavhandling  Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cognitive Profiles of Autism and ADHD from a Cognitive Behavioral Perspective: Treatment, Prevention and the Understanding of the Comorbidity

Available from: 2019-04-17 Created: 2019-04-17 Last updated: 2022-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cognitive Profiles of Autism and ADHD from a Cognitive Behavioral Perspective: Treatment, Prevention and the Understanding of the Comorbidity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cognitive Profiles of Autism and ADHD from a Cognitive Behavioral Perspective: Treatment, Prevention and the Understanding of the Comorbidity
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present research was to increase the understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a cognitive behavioral perspective. The investigation was made to examine the effect of modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) using visualization. Basing our research on Salkovskis’ cognitive model of OCD,  the  aim was to investigate whether obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with ASD differs from OCD in patients with OCD alone, and to identify cognitive differences between individuals with a combination of ASD and OCD and a non-clinical control group. Further, to investigate the possibility that the criteria for ADHD, as given on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), are overrepresented in sports athletes compared to non-athletes, and that these criteria may be an advantage for athletes’ achievement rather than causing problems for these individuals. 

In Study I, therapy was given with modified CBT including visualization.  Results showed that modified CBT, resulted in significant reduction in anxiety levels, and behavioral changes in the target behaviors.

In Study II, three groups, individuals with ASD and OCD, individuals with only OCD, and non-clinical controls, were compared. Results showed a significant difference between participants with both ASD and OCD and participants with OCD only.

In Study III, the interest was to examining whether athletes, compared to non-athletes, have more ADHD-like symptoms in the two settings i.e. in school and leisure time/ sport activity and whether the cognitive profile that includes these criteria could be of advantage to their sport performance. The results showed significant differences between the groups and within the athlete’s group, in school and in leisure time/the sports activity, concerning ASRS scores.

One general conclusion from these investigations is that the cognitive profiles of ASD and ADHD need to be recognized and taken into consideration early in the daily life both at home and in school, to reduce the risk of comorbidity.

Abstract [en]

The aim of the present research was to increase the understanding of ASD and ADHD from a cognitive behavioral perspective.

In Study I, the treatment was modified CBT, including visualization and results showed that modified CBT resulted in significant reduction in anxiety levels, and behavioral changes in the target behavior.

In Study II, individuals with ASD and OCD, individuals with only OCD, and non-clinical controls, were compared in terms of Salkovskis’ cognitive model of OCD. Results showed a significant difference between participants with both ASD and OCD and participants with OCD only.

In Study III, the investigation was to examine whether athletes, compared to non-athletes, have more ADHD-like symptoms in the two settings i.e. in school and leisure time/ sport activity and whether the cognitive profile that includes these criteria could be of advantage to their sport performance. The results showed significant differences between the groups and within the athlete’s group, in school and in leisure time/the sports activity, concerning ASRS scores.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019. p. 69
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2019:15
Keywords
Autism Spectrum Disorder, Mindblindness, Theory of mind, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Obsessive compulsive disorder, ADHD, ADD, Sports, Athletes, Physical activity, Hyperactivity, Hyperfocusing
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71857 (URN)978-91-7867-022-2 (ISBN)978-91-7867-027-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-24, 1B306, Fryksell, Karlstad, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Artikel 3 ingick som manuskript i avhandlingen, nu publicerad.

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-17 Last updated: 2021-06-07Bibliographically approved

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Ekman, ElizabethHiltunen, ArtoGustafsson, Henrik

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