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Eliciting Design Guidelines for Privacy Notifications in mHealth Environments
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, ISSN 1942-390X, E-ISSN 1942-3918, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 66-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibilities of employing mobile health (mhealth) devices for the purpose of self-quantification and fitness tracking are increasing, yet few users of online mhealth services possess proven knowledge of how their personal data are processed once the data have been disclosed. Ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) can provide such insight and guide users in making informed decisions with respect to intervening with the processing of their personal data. At present, however, there are no suitable guidelines that aid designers of TETs in implementing privacy notifications that reflect their recipients’ needs in terms of what they want to be notified about and the level of guidance required to audit their data effectively. Based on an analysis of gaps related to TETs, the findings of a study on privacy notification preferences, and the findings on notifications and privacy notices discussed in the literature, this paper proposes a set of guidelines for the human-centred design of privacy notifications that facilitate ex post transparency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IGI Global, 2019. Vol. 11, no 4, p. 66-83
Keywords [en]
Data transparency, Human-Centred Design, Individualisation, Intervenability, Mobile Health (mHealth), Notification, Privacy, Transparency-Enhancing Tool (TET), Usability
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71119DOI: 10.4018/IJMHCI.2019100106ISI: 000501306200007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-71119DiVA, id: diva2:1289392
Note

Artikeln ingick som manuskript i Murmanns (2019) licentiatuppsats Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation.

Available from: 2019-02-18 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2020-09-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The General Data Protection Regulation grants data subjects the legal rights of transparency and intervenability. Ex post transparency provides users of data services with insight into how their personal data have been processed, and potentially clarifies what consequences will or may arise due to the processing of their data. Technological artefacts, ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) convey such information to data subjects, provided the TETs are designed to suit the predisposition of their audience. Despite being a prerequisite for transparency, however, many of the TETs available to date lack usability in that their capabilities do not reflect the needs of their final users.

The objective of this thesis is therefore to systematically apply the concept of human-centred design to ascertain design principles that demonstrably lead to the implementation of a TET that facilitates ex post transparency and supports intervenability. To this end, we classify the state of the art of usable ex post TETs published in the literature and discuss the gaps therein. Contextualising our findings in the domain of fitness tracking, we investigate to what extent individualisation can help accommodate the needs of users of online mobile health services. We introduce the notion of privacy notifications as a means to inform data subjects about incidences worthy of their attention and examine how far privacy personas reflect the preferences of distinctive groups of recipients. We suggest a catalogue of design guidelines that can serve as a basis for specifying context-sensitive requirements for the implementation of a TET that leverages privacy notifications to facilitate ex post transparency, and which also serve as criteria for the evaluation of a future prototype.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019. p. 140
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2019:8
Keywords
Data transparency, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Human-centred design, Human-computer interaction (HCI), Information privacy, Intervenability, Mobile health (mhealth), Transparency-enhancing tool (TET), Usability
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Interaction Technologies Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71120 (URN)978-91-7867-003-1 (ISBN)978-91-7867-008-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-05-23, 1B309, Karlstad university, Karlstad, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 675730
Note

Paper 2 ingick som manuskript i avhandlingen, nu publicerad.

Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
2. Information at Your Fingertips: Facilitating Usable Transparency via Privacy Notifications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information at Your Fingertips: Facilitating Usable Transparency via Privacy Notifications
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The General Data Protection Regulation stipulates legal rights of transparency and intervenability. Transparency provides data subjects with insight into how their personal data have been processed, clarifying what consequences will or may arise due to the processing of their data, whereas intervenability enables them to intervene in the process. Technological artefacts, transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) serve the purpose of conveying respective information precisely and intelligibily. However, despite being a prerequisite for transparency, many TETs available today lack usability in that they do not stringently reflect the needs of their users, which raises the question as to whether individual TETs fulfil their designated purpose.

The objective of this dissertation is to systematically apply principles pertaining to human-centred design to ascertain the qualities necessary to design TETs that facilitate transparency and advise means of intervenability with regard to the needs of their target audience. We classify the state of the art of usable TETs published in the literature and discuss the gaps therein. Contextualising our research in the domain of personal health tracking, we investigate to what extent customisation can help accommodate the needs of users of TETs. We introduce privacy notifications as a conceptual means to inform data subjects about facts worthy of their attention, and examine the immanent properties required to accomplish actual usability. We categorise the characteristics of privacy notifications in terms of what insight they convey, and how respective facts need to be presented to facilitate informed decision-making on the recipient's part. Based on findings obtained via quantitative and qualitative user studies, we elicit concomitant factors related to the parameterisation of privacy notifications. We present the prototypical implementation of TETs whose iterative evaluation provides us with a catalogue of design requirements that demonstrably reflect the needs of their users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2020. p. 55
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2020:28
Keywords
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Human-centred design, Human-computer interaction (HCI), Information privacy, Intervenability, Mobile health (mhealth), Personal health tracking, Privacy notification, Transparency, Transparency-enhancing tool (TET), Usability
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-80075 (URN)978-91-7867-144-1 (ISBN)978-91-7867-148-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-10-28, 21E415A, Sjökvistsalen, Karlstad, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Artikel 6 del av avhandlingen som manuskript, nu publicerad.

Available from: 2020-10-07 Created: 2020-09-04 Last updated: 2021-07-02Bibliographically approved

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Murmann, Patrick

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