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5G Backhauling with Software-defined Wireless Mesh Networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4961-5087
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Current technological advances have caused an exponential growth of the number of mobile Internet-connected devices, along with their respective traffic demands. To cope with this increase of traffic demands, fifth generation (5G) network architectures will need to provide multi-gigabit capacity at the access base stations (BSs), through the deployment of ultra-dense small cells (SCs) operating with millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies, e.g. 60 GHz. To connect the BSs to the core network, a robust and high capacity backhaul infrastructure is required. As it is unfeasible to connect all the SCs through optical fiber links, a solution for the future 5G backhaul relies on the usage of mmWave frequencies to interconnect the SCs, forming multi-hop wireless mesh topologies. In this thesis, we explore the application of the Software-defined Networking (SDN) paradigm for the management of a SC wireless backhaul. With SDN, the data and control planes are separated and the network management is done by a centralized controller entity that has a global network view. To that end, we provide multiple contributions. Firstly, we provide an SDN-based architecture to manage SC backhaul networks, which include an out-of-band Long Term Evolution (LTE) control channel and where we consider aspects such as energy efficiency, resiliency and flexible backhaul operation. Secondly, we demonstrate the benefit of the wireless backhaul configuration using the SDN controller, which can be used to improve the wireless resource allocation and provide resiliency mechanisms in the network. Finally, we investigate how a SC mesh backhaul can be optimally reconfigured between different topologies, focusing on minimizing the network disruption during the reconfiguration.

Abstract [en]

The growth of mobile devices, along with their traffic demands, is expected to saturate the current mobile networks soon. To cope with such demand increase, fifth generation (5G) network architectures will need to provide multi-gigabit capacity at the access level, through the deployment of a massive amount of ultra-dense small cells (SCs). To connect the access and core networks, a robust and high capacity backhaul is required. To that end, mmWave links that operate at e.g. 60 GHz, can be used to interconnect the SCs, forming multi-hop wireless mesh topologies.

 

In this thesis, we study the application of the Software-defined Networking (SDN) paradigm for the management of a SC wireless backhaul. Firstly, we provide an SDN-based architecture to manage SC backhaul networks, which includes an out-of-band control channel and where we consider aspects such as energy efficiency, resiliency and flexible backhaul operation. Secondly, we show the benefits of the wireless backhaul configuration using the SDN controller, which can be used to improve the wireless resource allocation and provide network resiliency. Finally, we investigate how a SC mesh backhaul can be optimally reconfigured between different topologies, while minimizing the network disruption during the reconfiguration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2018. , p. 95
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2018:44
Keywords [en]
SDN, wireless backhaul, heterogeneous networks, mmWave, 5G, resiliency
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69437ISBN: 978-91-7063-881-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7063-976-0 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-69437DiVA, id: diva2:1252658
Presentation
2018-10-22, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A SDN Controller Architecture for Small Cell Wireless Backhaul using a LTE Control Channel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A SDN Controller Architecture for Small Cell Wireless Backhaul using a LTE Control Channel
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE WoWMoM, IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41735 (URN)10.1109/WoWMoM.2016.7523544 (DOI)000392273900049 ()978-1-5090-2185-7 (ISBN)
Conference
WoWMoM 2016 - IEEE 17th International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, June 21-24 2016, Coimbra, Portugal
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, SOCRA
Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-20 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
2. Small Cell Wireless Backhaul Reconfiguration Using Software-Defined Networking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small Cell Wireless Backhaul Reconfiguration Using Software-Defined Networking
2017 (English)In: Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2017 IEEE, IEEE, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to increase the capacity of next generation mobile networks, network densification is a key aspect to provide better coverage and increased data rates to end users. Network operators are thinking to deploy wireless backhaul solutions to cut down cabling costs for connecting the small cell nodes. Consequently, the next generation mobile network architecture may contain a massive amount of small cells that are connected through wireless backhaul links, forming mesh or tree structures towards the core network, under the umbrella coverage of eNodeB type macro cells. In this paper, we use a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based architecture for the operation and management of such small cell backhaul networks. By extending OpenFlow, the SDN controller is able to reconfigure not only the routing, but also the wireless backhaul configuration, such as channel assignment to backhaul links. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by using testbed measurements and show that, when using our SDN-based reconfiguration, the network downtime for existing traffic due to channel re-assignment is significantly reduced, when comparing to a distributed routing based approach. Moreover, by using SDN based fast-failover techniques, we can instantaneously redirect traffic to other neighbors when links fail or neighbors are powered down, without the need for controller interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference : Proceedings, E-ISSN 1558-2612
Keywords
SDN, wireless backhaul, small cell networks, 5G
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-64532 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2017.7925943 (DOI)000403137600460 ()978-1-5090-4184-8 (ISBN)978-1-5090-4183-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2017 IEEE, 19-22 March 2017, San Francisco, CA, USA
Projects
SOCRA
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 4840
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. Turning the knobs on OpenFlow-based resiliency in mmWave small cell meshed networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turning the knobs on OpenFlow-based resiliency in mmWave small cell meshed networks
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2017 IEEE: 5G Testbed, IEEE, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a solution to cope with the increase of wireless network traffic for future 5G networks, the IEEE 802.11ad standard enables multi-gigabit connectivity within the 60 GHz spectrum. Since these networks typically have low range, a vast number of small cells is required to form a wireless backhaul that can be easily affected by temporary failures due to blockage/interference. Software-defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm that allows the centralization of the control plane management, which can be applied to mmWave wireless backhaul networks. Using SDN enables the possibility of having resilience mechanisms in the network, such as Fast-Failover (FF) group tables in the OpenFlow (OF) protocol. In this paper, we analyse resilient forwarding configurations upon temporary link failures. We perform our evaluation on a 4 small cell testbed with multiple IEEE 802.11ad interfaces, showing how OF-based resiliency can be applied, through FF and the Bidirectional-Forwarding Detection (BFD) protocol. Our results show how BFD can be tuned to improve the link state monitoring, and how a local reactive failover mechanism can benefit ongoing traffic in small cell meshed backhaul networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
National Category
Telecommunications Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65584 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOMW.2017.8269214 (DOI)000426984700183 ()978-1-5386-3920-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE GLOBECOM 2017, Int. Workshop on 5G Test-Beds and Trials - Learnings from implementing 5G, 4-8 dec. 2017 Singapore.
Projects
SOCRA (4840)
Available from: 2018-01-23 Created: 2018-01-23 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. Optimal Steerable mmWave Mesh Backhaul Reconfiguration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Steerable mmWave Mesh Backhaul Reconfiguration
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM), IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future 5G mobile networks will require increased backhaul (BH) capacity to connect a massive amount of high capacity small cells (SCs) to the network. Because having an optical connection to each SC might be infeasible, mmWave-based (e.g. 60 GHz) BH links are an interesting alternative due to their large available bandwidth. To cope with the increased path loss, mmWave links require directional antennas that should be able to direct their beams to different neighbors, to dynamically change the BH topology, in case new nodes are powered on/off or the traffic demand has changed. Such BH adaptation needs to be orchestrated to minimize the impact on existing traffic.This paper develops a Software-defined networking-based framework that guides the optimal reconfiguration of mesh BH networks composed by mmWave links, where antennas need to be mechanically aligned.By modelling the problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), its solution returns the optimal ordering of events necessary to transition between two BH network configurations. The model creates backup paths whenever it is possible, while minimizing the packet loss of ongoing flows. A numerical evaluation with different topologies and traffic demands shows that increasing the number of BH interfaces per SC from 2 to 4 can decrease the total loss by more than 50%. Moreover, when increasing the total reconfiguration time, additional backup paths can be created, consequently reducing the reconfiguration impact on existing traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), ISSN 2334-0983, E-ISSN 2576-6813
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69436 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2018.8647747 (DOI)000465774303123 ()978-1-5386-4727-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM)
Projects
Socra, 4840
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved

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