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Effects of plasticizing and crosslinking on coatings based on blends of starch-PVOH and starch-lignin
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A barrier material is usually needed on a fiber-based food package to protect the packed food from gases and moisture and thus maintain its quality. Barrier materials presently used in food packaging applications are mostly petroleum-based polymers. Over the last few decades, efforts have been made to replace petroleum-based materials with bio-based materials. The present work has focused on the possibility of using a natural barrier material on a fiber-based food package and the  effects of plasticizing and cross-linking on the mechanical and barrier properties, and the stability in water of coatings based on starch-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and starch-lignin blends.

The flexibility of the starch films was increased by adding PVOH further by adding a plasticizer. It was shown that citric acid can act as a compatibilizer and cross-linker for starch and PVOH, and the use of citric acid may slow down the diffusion of both oxygen and water vapor if a multilayer coating strategy is used. The addition of polyethylene glycol to the pre-coating recipe resulted in a lower oxygen transmission rate through polyethylene-extruded board than when citric acid was added to the pre-coating. The flexibility of the barrier coatings and the properties of the base substrate affect the cracking tendency of the barrier coatings during the creasing and folding of a barrier-coated board.

The addition of lignin to the starch reduced the migration of starch from the starch-lignin films and the addition of ammonium zirconium carbonate as a cross-linker reduced the migration of both starch and lignin from the films. The addition of starch to the lignin solution increased the solubility of lignin at low pH, and the pilot-coated board showed a significant decrease in migration of lignin from the coatings containing ammonium zirconium carbonate when the pH of the coating solution was decreased.

Abstract [en]

A barrier material is usually needed on a fiber-based food package to maintain quality by protecting packed food from gases and moisture. Over the last few decades, efforts have been made to replace petroleum-based materials with bio-based materials. The present work has focused on the possibility of using a natural barrier material on fiber-based food packaging materials, and the effects of plasticizing and cross-linking on the mechanical and barrier properties and on the stability in water of coatings based on starch-PVOH and starch-lignin blends have been evaluated.

Citric acid can act as a compatibilizer and cross-linker for starch and PVOH, and the use of citric acid may retard the diffusion of both oxygen and water vapor if a multilayer coating strategy is used. A polyethylene extrusion coating on a board pre-coated with a recipe containing polyethylene glycol resulted in a greater reduction in the rate of oxygen transmission than through a board pre-coated with a recipe containing citric acid. The addition of lignin to the starch solution decreased the migration of starch from the starch-lignin films, and the addition of ammonium zirconium carbonate as a cross-linker decreased the migration of both starch and lignin from the films. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2018. , p. 69
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2018:14
Keywords [en]
Citric acid, Glycerol, Polyethylene glycol, Barrier coatings, Starch, Lignin, Mechanical properties, Poly(vinyl alcohol), Creasing, Adhesion, Cross-linking, Extrusion coating
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66853ISBN: 978-91-7063-844-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7063-939-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-66853DiVA, id: diva2:1193256
Public defence
2018-05-16, 1B306, Fryxellsalen, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Artikel 4 ingick som manuskript i avhandlingen

Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Study of starch and starch-PVOH blends and effects of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of coated paperboard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of starch and starch-PVOH blends and effects of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of coated paperboard
2016 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 499-510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mechanical properties of self-supporting films based on starch-plasticizer and starch-PVOH-plasticizer and the barrier properties of paperboard coated with solutions of these polymers have been studied. The plasticizers used were glycerol, polyethylene glycol and citric acid. It was shown that the addition of a plasticizer and PVOH to starch substantially increases the flexibility of starch films. It was seen that curing the self-supporting films led to a decrease in flexibility. After heat-treatment, a substantial increase in storage modulus was observed only in the starch-PVOH-citric-acid blend films. Tensile tests on the films indicate that citric acid did not cause any noticeable phase separation. Citric acid acted as a compatibilizer for starch-PVOH blends even though a similar enrichment of PVOH at the air-solid interface was observed with both citric acid and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The properties of barrier coatings greatly reflected the compatibility of starch-PVOH blends containing citric acid. The only plasticizer that resulted in a lower water vapour transmission rate through the starch and starch-PVOH coatings was citric acid, which suggests that cross-linking took place. With four layers, coatings based of starch-PVOH possessed the same oxygen-transmission rate with citric acid as without citric acid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING, 2016
Keywords
Citric acid; Glycerol; Polyethylene glycol; Barrier coatings; Starch; Mechanical properties
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38334 (URN)000387976000010 ()
Available from: 2015-11-06 Created: 2015-11-06 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
2. Effects on Oxygen-barrier Properties of Pretreating Paperboard with a Starch–Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blend before Polyethylene Extrusion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on Oxygen-barrier Properties of Pretreating Paperboard with a Starch–Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blend before Polyethylene Extrusion
2016 (English)In: Packaging technology and science, ISSN 0894-3214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38336 (URN)10.1002/pts.2210 (DOI)
Note

ej publicerats än

Available from: 2015-11-06 Created: 2015-11-06 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
3. Crack analysis of barrier coatings based on starch and starch-PVOH with and without plasticizer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crack analysis of barrier coatings based on starch and starch-PVOH with and without plasticizer
2018 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 336-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2018
Keywords
Starch, Glycerol, Barrier coatings, Mechanical properties, Creasing, Folding
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66849 (URN)10.1515/npprj-2018-3039 (DOI)000450922400018 ()
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Lignin-containing coatings for packaging materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin-containing coatings for packaging materials
2018 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 548-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2018
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66852 (URN)10.1515/npprj-2018-3042 (DOI)000450923900021 ()
Note

Artikeln ingick som manuskript i Javeds doktorsavhandling Effects of plasticizing and crosslinking on coatings based on blends of starch-PVOH and starch-lignin

Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
5. Lignin-containing coatings for packaging materials: Pilot trials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin-containing coatings for packaging materials: Pilot trials
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66850 (URN)
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved

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