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Wear mechanisms in sheet metal forming: Effects of tool microstructure, adhesion and temperature
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik. (Materialteknik)
2008 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The general trend in the car body manufacturing industry is towards low-series production and reduction of press lubricants and car weight. The limited use of lubricants, in combination with the introduction of high and ultrahigh-strength sheet materials, continuously increases the demands on the forming tools. The major cause for tool failure during the forming process is transfer and accumulation of sheet material on the tool surfaces, generally referred to as galling. The adhered material creates unstable frictional conditions and scratching of the tool/sheet interface. To provide the means of forming new generations of sheet materials, development of new tool materialswith improved galling resistance is required, which may include tailored microstructures introducing specific carbides and nitrides, coatings and improved surface finish. In the present work, the galling wear mechanisms in real forming operations have been studied and emulated at a laboratory scale by developing a test equipment. The wear mechanisms, identified in the real forming process, were distinguished into a sequence of events. At the initial stage, local adhesive wear of the sheets led to transfer of sheet material to the tool surfaces. Successive forming operations resulted in growth of the transfer layer with initiation of scratching of the sheets. Finally, scratching changed into severe adhesive wear, associated withgross macroscopic damage. The wear process was successfully repeated in the laboratory test equipment in sliding between several tool materials, ranging from cast iron and conventional ingot cast tool steels, to advanced powder metallurgy tool steel, sliding against medium and high-strength steel sheets. By use of the test equipment, selected tool materials were ranked regarding galling resistance. The controlling mechanism for galling in sheet metal forming is adhesion. The initial sheet material transfer was found to occur, preferably, to the metallic matrix of the tool steels. Hence, the carbides in the particular steels appeared less prone to adhesion as compared to the metallic matrix. Therefore, an improved galling resistance was observed for a tool steel comprising a high amount of small homogeneously distributed carbides offering a low-strength interface to the transferred sheet material.Further, atomic force microscopy showed that nanoscale adhesion was influenced by temperature, with increasing adhesion as temperature increases. A similar dependence was observed at the macroscale where increasing surface temperature led to initiation of severe adhesive wear. The results were in good agreement to the nano scale observations and temperature-induced high adhesion was suggested as a possible mechanism.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2008. , s. 41
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2008:46
Emneord [en]
Galling, sheet metal forming, wear, friction, adhesion, temperature
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2911ISBN: 978-91-7063-204-4 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-2909DiVA, id: diva2:113679
Disputas
2008-12-12, Nyqvistsalen, 9C 203, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (svensk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-20 Laget: 2008-10-23 Sist oppdatert: 2011-11-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Wear mechanisms in deep drawing of carbon steel: correlation to laboratory testing
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Wear mechanisms in deep drawing of carbon steel: correlation to laboratory testing
2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Tribotest, ISSN 1354-4063, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Wiley, 2008
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2012 (URN)10.1002/tt.49 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2015-12-22bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Comparison of two test methods for evaluation of forming tool materials
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Comparison of two test methods for evaluation of forming tool materials
Vise andre…
2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Tribotest, ISSN 1354-4063, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 147-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
John Wiley & Sons, 2008
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2013 (URN)10.1002/tt.54 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2015-12-22bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Galling resistance and wear mechanisms - cold work tool materials sliding against carbon steel sheets
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Galling resistance and wear mechanisms - cold work tool materials sliding against carbon steel sheets
2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 67-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2014 (URN)10.1007/s11249-006-9186-5 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Wear mechanisms in galling: cold work tool materials sliding against high-strength carbon steel sheets
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Wear mechanisms in galling: cold work tool materials sliding against high-strength carbon steel sheets
2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 45-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
Abstract [en]

Transfer and accumulation of adhered sheet material, generally referred to as galling, is the major cause for tool failure in sheet metal forming. In this study, the galling resistances of several tool steels were evaluated against dual-phase high-strength carbon steel using a SOFS tribometer, in which disc-shaped tools were slid against a real sheet surface in dry sliding test conditions. Three different frictional regimes were identified and characterized during sliding, and any transition in friction corresponded to a transition in wear mechanisms of the sheets. The performance of the tools depended on load, material and the particular frictional regime. Best overall performance was obtained by nitrogen-alloyed powder metallurgy tool steel.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer, 2009
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3034 (URN)10.1007/s11249-008-9390-6 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
5. Influence of tool steel microstructure on origin of galling initiation and wear mechanisms under dry sliding against carbon steel sheets
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Influence of tool steel microstructure on origin of galling initiation and wear mechanisms under dry sliding against carbon steel sheets
2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 267, nr 1-4, s. 387-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2009
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3035 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2008.11.013 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
6. Experimental study of the relationship between temperature and adhesive forces for low-alloyed steel, stainless steel and titanium using atomic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Experimental study of the relationship between temperature and adhesive forces for low-alloyed steel, stainless steel and titanium using atomic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum
Vise andre…
2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 103, nr 12, artikkel-id 124301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
AIP, 2008
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2015 (URN)10.1063/1.2938844 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
7. Temperature effects on adhesive wear in dry sliding contacts
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Temperature effects on adhesive wear in dry sliding contacts
2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 268, nr 7-8, s. 968-975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2010
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3036 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2009.12.007 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
8. Galling in sheet metal forming
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Galling in sheet metal forming
2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the IDDRG 2008 Conference: Best in class stamping, 16-18 June 2008, Olofström: Industriellt utvecklingscentrum i Olofström AB , 2008Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Olofström: Industriellt utvecklingscentrum i Olofström AB, 2008
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3037 (URN)978-91-633-2948-7 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-19 Laget: 2008-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert

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