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Phthalates: On the issue of sources, human uptake, time trends and health effects
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3395-2409
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human health depends on a well-functioning endocrine system to regulate hormone release for normal bodily functions. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitutes a group of chemicals, included in many commonly used products, (e.g., PVC flooring), with properties proven or suspected to interact with the natural hormone system in humans and animals. EDCs are manmade compounds (there are also natural compounds with such properties) that can bind to cell receptors and mimic or block the functions of natural hormones potentially resulting in adverse human health effects.

One type of widely concerning EDC is phthalates. Since phthalates create weak chemical bonds when they are added into different products, they readily leach into the surrounding environment. Phthalate metabolites can therefore be frequently measured in human biological samples. Major public health concerns regarding EDCs over the past three decades have focused on phthalates. According to the World Health Organization, EDCs are suspected to be associated with altered reproductive function in males and females, increased incidence of breast cancer, abnormal growth patterns and neurodevelopmental delays in children, as well as changes in immune function.

The thesis shows that PVC flooring in the home is a source for human uptake of phthalates, that replacement of phthalates in soft PVC products have an impact on human uptake of these chemicals, and that exposure for phthalates in early life increase the risk for airway disorders in children.

As we have shown, ongoing regulations on phthalates is of importance for human uptake. Ultimately, individuals can make small changes in their consumer product choices that can lead to changes in uptake of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties. Philosophically, we all have a responsibility to protect future generations from dangerous chemicals.

Abstract [en]

Human health depends on a well-functioning endocrine system to regulate hormone release for normal bodily functions. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitutes a group of chemicals, included in many commonly used products, (e.g., PVC flooring), with properties proven or suspected to interact with the natural hormone system in humans and animals.

One type of widely concerning EDC is phthalates. Since phthalates create weak chemical bonds when they are added into different products, they readily leach into the surrounding environment. Phthalate metabolites can therefore be frequently measured in human biological samples. Major public health concerns regarding EDCs over the past three decades have focused on phthalates resulting in implementation of regulations.

The thesis shows that PVC flooring in the home is a source for human uptake of phthalates, that replacement of phthalates in soft PVC products have an impact on human uptake of these chemicals, and that exposure for phthalates in early life increase the risk for airway disorders in children. This means that regulation and consumers’ product choices can lead to changes in uptake of EDCs of importance for human health. Philosophically, we all have a responsibility to protect future generations from dangerous chemicals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2017. , p. 61
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:30
Keywords [en]
Phthalates, Asthma, Pregnant, Exposure, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, SELMA
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62637ISBN: 978-91-7063-806-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7063-902-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-62637DiVA, id: diva2:1131172
Public defence
2017-09-29, 1B306 (Fryxellsalen), Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper 2 and 3 manuscript in thesis, now published.

Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-08-13 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. PVC flooring at home and development of asthma among young children in Sweden, a 10-year follow-up
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PVC flooring at home and development of asthma among young children in Sweden, a 10-year follow-up
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2014 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The incidence of asthma and allergy has increased throughout the developed world over the past decades. During the same period of time the use of industrial chemicals such as phthalates, commonly used as plasticizers in polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring material, has increased.

AIMS: To investigate if PVC-flooring in the home of children in the age of 1-5 years is associated with the development of asthma in 5-year and 10-year follow-up investigations (n=3,228).

METHODS: Dampness in Buildings and Health Study (DBH Study) commenced in 2000 in Värmland, Sweden. The current analyses included subjects who answered all baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were applied to questionnaire results.

RESULTS: Children who had PVC floorings in the bedroom at baseline were more likely to develop doctor diagnosed asthma during the following 10 years period when compared with children living without. There were indications that PVC flooring in the parents' bedrooms were stronger associated with the new cases of doctor diagnosed asthma when compared with child's bedroom.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest PVC flooring exposure during pregnancy could be a critical period in the development of asthma in children at a later time, prenatal exposure and measurements of phthalate metabolites should be included in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
Allergy, Asthma, Children, Dampness in Buildings and Health Study, Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Incidence, Longitudinal, Phthalates, Polyvinylchloride flooring
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Public Health Science; Biomedical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29598 (URN)10.1111/ina.12074 (DOI)000335008300002 ()24118287 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
2. PVC flooring at home and uptake of phthalates in pregnant women
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PVC flooring at home and uptake of phthalates in pregnant women
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2019 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, no 1, p. 43-54Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Phthalates are used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials and it is known that phthalates may migrate into the surrounding environment and then become a source for human uptake. The aim of the study was to investigate whether residential PVC flooring was related to the urinary levels of phthalate metabolites determined in pregnant women. The data were from the Swedish SELMA study where sampling was conducted during the time period 2007-2010. Spot urine samples from 1674 women at the end of the first trimester were analyzed for 14 metabolites from seven phthalates and one phthalate alternative. Data on flooring material in the kitchen and the parents' bedrooms as well as potential confounders were collected by postal questionnaires at the same time as the urine samples were taken. Multiple regression modeling by least square geometric mean and weighted quantile sum regression was applied to log-transformed and creatinine-adjusted phthalate metabolite concentrations adjusted for potential confounders from questionnaire data. This study has found significantly higher urinary levels of the BBzP metabolite (MBzP) in pregnant women living in homes with PVC flooring as compared to homes with other flooring materials

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
Human Breast-Milk; Anogenital Distance; Urinary Concentrations; Prenatal Exposure; Care Products; Male Infants; Metabolites; Association; Dust; Bisphenols
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62630 (URN)10.1111/ina.12508 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2019-03-14Bibliographically approved
3. Temporal Trends of Phthalate Exposures during 2007-2010 in Swedish Pregnant Women
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal Trends of Phthalate Exposures during 2007-2010 in Swedish Pregnant Women
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The general population is exposed to phthalates, a group of chemicals with strong evidence for endocrine disrupting properties, commonly used in a large number of consumer products. Based on published research and evidence compiled by environmental agencies, certain phthalate applications and products have become restricted, leading to an increasing number of “new generation compounds” coming onto the market during recent years replacing older phthalates. Some examples of such newer compounds are di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), and most recently di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH). Objectives: In order to evaluate temporal trends in phthalate exposure, first trimester urinary biomarkers of phthalates were measured in the Swedish SELMA study over a period of 2.5 years (2007–2010). Methods: We collected first morning void urine samples around week 10 of pregnancy from 1651 pregnant women. Spot samples were analyzed for 13 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement and least square geometric mean (LSGM) levels of the metabolites were compared between the sampling years when adjusted for potential confounders. Results: All 14 metabolites were detectable in more than 99% of the SELMA subjects. The levels were generally comparable to other studies, but the SELMA subjects showed slightly higher exposure to butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP). Di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites levels decreased while DiNP, DiDP/di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP), and DiNCH metabolites levels increased during the sampling period. Conclusions: Urinary metabolite levels of the older phthalates and more recently introduced phthalate replacement compound changed during the short sampling period in this Swedish pregnancy cohort. Our results indicate that replacement of phthalates can make an impact on human exposure to these chemicals. During this particularly vulnerable stage of life, phthalate exposures are of particular concern as the impacts, though not immediately noticeable, may increase the risk for health effects later in life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
Keywords
DiNCH, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Exposure, Phthalates, Pregnant, SELMA-Study, Temporal
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62628 (URN)10.1038/s41370-018-0020-6 (DOI)000444446100003 ()2-s2.0-85042354826 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
4. Prenatal phthalates exposure and the association to infant’s croup in the Swedish SELMA study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prenatal phthalates exposure and the association to infant’s croup in the Swedish SELMA study
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62629 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved

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