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Effect of fine wood on juvenile brown trout behaviour in experimental stream channels
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-7160-1290
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2220-1615
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 664-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Resurstyp
Text
Abstract [en]

In-stream wood can increase shelter availability and prey abundance for stream-living fish such as brown trout, Salmo trutta, but the input of wood to streams has decreased in recent years due to harvesting of riparian vegetation. During the last decades, fine wood (FW) has been increasingly used for biofuel, and the input of FW to streams may therefore decrease. Although effects of in-stream FW have not been studied as extensively as those of large wood (LW), it is probably important as shelter for small-sized trout. In a laboratory stream experiment, we tested the behavioural response of young-of-the-year wild brown trout to three densities of FW, with trout tested alone and in groups of four. Video recordings were used to measure the proportion of time allocated to sheltering, cruising and foraging, as well as the number of aggressive interactions and prey attacks. Cruising activity increased with decreasing FW density and was higher in the four-fish groups than when fish were alone. Foraging decreased and time spent sheltering in FW increased with increasing FW density. Our study shows that juvenile trout activity is higher in higher fish densities and that trout response to FW is related to FW density and differs from the response to LW as reported by others. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2016. Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 664-673
Nyckelord [en]
salmonid; YOY; streams; wood; small woody debris
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42488DOI: 10.1111/eff.12244ISI: 000388307300015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84938718603OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-42488DiVA, id: diva2:931250
Tillgänglig från: 2016-05-27 Skapad: 2016-05-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Fine stream wood: effects on drift and brown trout (Salmo trutta) growth and behaviour
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fine stream wood: effects on drift and brown trout (Salmo trutta) growth and behaviour
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Stream ecosystems and their riparian zones have previously been regarded as two different ecosystems, linked through numerous reciprocal subsidies. Today, ecologists agree that the stream and the riparian zone should be regarded as one system, the stream-riparian ecosystem, which is characterised largely by the subsidies between land and water. The terrestrial subsidies to the stream affect stream-living biota in several ways, some of which are well-known while others less so. The input of wood to the stream from the riparian zone is believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of stream-living fish. In this doctoral thesis, I explore effects of fine stream wood (FW, <10 cm diameter) on wild stream-living young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta) by reporting and discussing results from laboratory, semi-natural and field experiments. My results show that the local density of drifting prey is higher in the presence of FW than in its absence, and also that young-of-the-year brown trout decrease their diurnal foraging time and prey capture success when FW is added to their habitat. I show that trout decrease their swimming activity in the presence of FW, aggregate in FW bundles, and have lower growth rates than trout without FW access. Also, the degree of sheltering in FW bundles was higher during day than at night in a study performed at low water temperatures; moreover, the presence of an ectothermic nocturnal predator (burbot, Lota lota) did not affect the degree of sheltering in FW bundles by trout. Taken together, my results indicate that young-of-the-year brown trout with access to FW bundles spend considerable amounts of time sheltering in the FW, and by doing so they miss the opportunity for higher growth and foraging rates outside of the shelter. The most probable explanation for this behaviour is that growth is traded off against survival, i.e., the predation risk is higher outside of the shelter.

Abstract [en]

Stream ecosystems and their riparian zones have previously been regarded as two different ecosystems, linked through numerous reciprocal subsidies. Today, ecologists agree that the stream and the riparian zone should be regarded as one system, the stream-riparian ecosystem, which is characterised largely by the subsidies between land and water. In this doctoral thesis, I explore one such subsidy – the input of fine stream wood (FW) to streams. Wild stream-living young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta) was chosen as study species. My results show that the local density of drifting prey is higher in the presence of FW than in its absence, and that young-of-the-year brown trout decrease their diurnal foraging time and prey capture success when FW is added to their habitat. I show that trout decrease their activity in the presence of FW, aggregate in FW bundles, and have lower growth rates than trout without FW access. Taken together, my results indicate that young-of-the-year brown trout spend considerable amounts of time in FW bundles, and by doing so they miss the opportunity for higher growth and foraging rates outside of the shelter. The most probable explanation for this behaviour is that growth is traded off against survival.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad University Press, 2016. s. 43
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 34
Nyckelord
stream fish, wood, salmonid, trout, aquatic invertebrates, behaviour, sheltering
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44537 (URN)978-91-7063-715-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2016-09-23, 9C 203, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Artikel 3 publicerades i avhandlingen som manuskript med samma titel.

Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-02 Skapad: 2016-08-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-10Bibliografiskt granskad

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Enefalk, ÅsaBergman, Eva

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