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Morphology and material stability in polymer solar cells
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4745-1074
2015 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Polymer solar cells are promising in that they are inexpensive to produce, and due to their mechanical flexibility have the potential for use in applications not possible for more traditional types of solar cells. The performance of polymer solar cells depends strongly on the distribution of electron donor and acceptor material in the active layer. Understanding the connection between morphology and performance as well as how to control the morphology, is therefore of great importance. Furthermore, improving the lifetime of polymer solar cells has become at least as important as improving the efficiency.

 

In this thesis, the relation between morphology and solar cell performance is studied, and the material stability for blend films of the thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer TQ1 and the fullerene derivatives PCBM and PC70BM. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) are used to investigate the lateral morphology, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to measure the vertical morphology and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to determine the surface composition. Lateral phase-separated domains are observed whose size is correlated to the solar cell performance, while the observed TQ1 surface enrichment does not affect the performance. Changes to the unoccupied molecular orbitals as a result of illumination in ambient air are observed by NEXAFS spectroscopy for PCBM, but not for TQ1. The NEXAFS spectrum of PCBM in a blend with TQ1 changes more than that of pristine PCBM. Solar cells in which the active layer has been illuminated in air prior to the deposition of the top electrode exhibit greatly reduced electrical performance. The valence band and absorption spectrum of TQ1 is affected by illumination in air, but the effects are not large enough to account for losses in solar cell performance, which are mainly attributed to PCBM degradation at the active layer surface.

Abstract [en]

The performance of polymer solar cells depends strongly on the distribution of electron donor and acceptor material in the active layer. Understanding the connection between morphology and performance as well as how to control the morphology, is therefore of great importance. Furthermore, improving the lifetime has become at least as important as improving the efficiency for polymer solar cells to become a viable technology.

 

In this work, the relation between morphology and solar cell performance is studied as well as the material stability for polymer:fullerene blend films. A combination of microscopic and spectroscopic methods is used to investigate the lateral and vertical morphology as well as the surface composition. Lateral phase-separated domains are observed whose size is correlated to the solar cell performance, while the observed surface enrichment of polymer does not affect the performance. Changes to the unoccupied molecular states as a result of illumination in ambient air are observed for the fullerene, but not for the polymer, and fullerenes in a blend change more than pristine fullerenes. Solar cells in which the active layer has been illuminated exhibit greatly reduced electrical performance, mainly attributed to fullerene degradation at the active layer surface.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015. , s. 51
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2015:44
Nyckelord [en]
polymer solar cell, photovoltaics, morphology, photo-degradation, conjugated polymer, fullerene, synchroton-based techniques
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Forskningsämne
Fysik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37843ISBN: 978-91-7063-662-2 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-37843DiVA, id: diva2:852740
Presentation
2015-10-16, Eva Erikssonsalen, 21A 342, Karlstad universitet, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Paper 2 ingick som manuskript i avhandlingen. Nu publicerad. 

Tillgänglig från: 2015-09-25 Skapad: 2015-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-20Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC70BM blend
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC70BM blend
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2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, s. 6970-6979Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nyckelord
NEXAFS, SIMS, solar cell, organic photovoltaics, solvent additives
Nationell ämneskategori
Den kondenserade materiens fysik
Forskningsämne
Fysik; Materialvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35418 (URN)10.1039/c5ta00683j (DOI)000351552300034 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 2010-4155Göran Gustafssons stiftelse för naturvetenskaplig och medicinsk forskning (KVA)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-22 Skapad: 2015-03-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-20Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Photodegradation in air of the active layer components in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer:fullerene solar cell
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Photodegradation in air of the active layer components in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer:fullerene solar cell
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, nr 16, s. 11132-11138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We have studied the photo-degradation in air of a blend of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1), and how the photo-degradation affects the solar cell performance. Using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, changes to the electronic structure of TQ1 and PCBM caused by illumination in ambient air are investigated and compared between the pristine materials and the blend. The NEXAFS spectra show that the unoccupied molecular orbitals of TQ1 are not significantly changed by the exposure of pristine TQ1 to light in air, whereas those of PCBM are severely affected as a result of photo-induced degradation of PCBM. Furthermore, the photo-degradation of PCBM is accelerated by blending it with TQ1. While the NEXAFS spectrum of TQ1 remains unchanged upon illumination in air, its valence band spectrum shows that the occupied molecular orbitals are weakly affected. Yet, UV-Vis absorption spectra demonstrate photo-bleaching of TQ1, which is attenuated in the presence of PCBM in blend films. Illumination of the active layer of TQ1: PCBM solar cells prior to cathode deposition causes severe losses in electrical performance.

Nyckelord
polymer solar cells, photodegradation, fullerene, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure
Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Forskningsämne
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37835 (URN)10.1039/c5cp07752d (DOI)000374786300053 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2015-09-04 Skapad: 2015-09-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-20Bibliografiskt granskad

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